All upcoming events

Bacterial transcription initiation gone awry: backtracking and pausing that lasts for durations comparable to the bacterial lifespan

Date:
22
Monday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Title: Special Guest Seminar
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Dr. Eitan Lerner
Organizer: Department of Biological Regulation
Abstract: DNA transcription follows a chain of events: initiation, elongation and terminat ...DNA transcription follows a chain of events: initiation, elongation and termination, in which initiation usually the slowest. This is mainly due to the process of RNA-polymerase (RNAP) proper binding to the promoter region on DNA and formation of the open transcription bubble, but also due to many failed attempts of the initially-transcribing complex (ITC) to escape the promoter region and transition to elongation. The latter involves multiple polymerization rounds of short transcript that are depleted from the complex after RNAP aborts a transcription trial to try again (abortive initiation). Traditionally, each round of abortive initiation was thought to be rapid. Using single-molecule FRET as well as magnetic tweezers nanomanipulation tools we have recently discovered an abortive initiation intermediate in which a short transcript on its way to be depleted, stabilizes the complex in a unique conformation with blockage of the nucleotide entry channel (the secondary channel). Even more intriguing was the fact that this paused-backtracked initiation intermediate was stabilized for ~4600 s. In addition, using single-molecule FRET measurements of multiple distances, we show that this long-lived paused-backtracked intermediate is associated with a conformation in the DNA transcription bubble different than any existing determined structure of the bacterial transcription initiation complex. Additionally, the initiation complex in this intermediate state avoids inhibition by the antibiotic molecule Rifampicin, for which there exist many different antibiotic-resistant mutants of RNAP. Therefore, it is important to understand how to stabilize this long-lived paused state as an antimicrobial strategy. This requires further structural determination, and because this intermediate state is heterogeneous, hence very hard to resolve using traditional structural biological techniques, we will discuss ways to resolve the possible structure through hybrid/integrative structural techniques, combining single-molecule spectroscopy and coarse-grained simulations. These findings open a new avenue in studying the mechanism of bacterial transcription initiation as well as new molecular therapeutic routes.

A deep 3D view into cells using cryo-scanning transmission electron tomography

Date:
23
Tuesday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Biological Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Shron G. Wolf
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: CryoSTEM tomography (CSTET) is a novel combination [1-5] of two well-established ...CryoSTEM tomography (CSTET) is a novel combination [1-5] of two well-established techniques: cryo-electron tomography (CET) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Cryogenic fixation allows for the most faithful preservation of biological macromolecules, tissues and cells. By preserving the cryogenic temperature and maintaining a contamination-free environment inside the electron microscope, CET for such cryo-preserved specimens have resulted in major advances in their characterization [6]. However, due to technical constraints, sample thickness amenable to viewing by CET is limited (up to ~400 nm). STEM provides a possibility for relieving these limitations because contrast and signal are produced incoherently. The natural limit for sample thickness is extended three-fold for CSTET, meaning that whole vitrified mammalian cells can be imaged at ~3-4 nm resolution for regions up to ~1 μm in thickness. For spreading cells, many inter- organelle contacts and morphologies can be studied. In addition, CSTET combined with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) allows for on-the-spot chemical characterization of cell contents. References 1. Wolf, S.G., L. Houben, and M. Elbaum, Cryo-scanning transmission electron tomography of vitrified cells. Nature Methods, 2014. 11(4): p. 423-428. 2. Wolf, S.G., P. Rez, and M. Elbaum, Phosphorus detection in vitrified bacteria by cryo- STEM annular dark-field analysis. J Microsc, 2015. 260(2): p. 227-33. 3. Elbaum, M., S.G. Wolf, and L. Houben, Cryo-scanning transmission electron tomography of biological cells. MRS Bulletin, 2016. 41(07): p. 542-548. 4. Wolf, S.G., E. Shimoni, M. Elbaum, and L. Houben, STEM Tomography in Biology, in Cellular Imaging, Electron Tomography and Related Techniques, E.G. Hanssen, Editor. 2017, Springer, in press. 5. Wolf, S.G., Y. Mutsafi, T. Dadosh, T. Ilani, Z. Lansky, B. Horowitz, S. Rubin, M. Elbaum, and D. Fass, 3D visualization of mitochondrial solid-phase calcium stores in whole cells. Elife, 2017. 6: e29929. 6. Beck, M. and W. Baumeister, Cryo-Electron Tomography: Can it Reveal the Molecular Sociology of Cells in Atomic Detail? Trends Cell Biol, 2016. 26(11): p. 825-837.

Optogenetic fMRI and the Investigation of Global Brain Circuit Mechanisms

Date:
25
Thursday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Jin Hyung Lee, PhD
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Dr.Ofer Yizhar ofer.yizhar@weizmann.ac.il tel: 6957 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Understanding the functional communication across brain has been a long sought-a ...Understanding the functional communication across brain has been a long sought-after goal of neuroscientists. However, due to the widespread and highly interconnected nature of brain circuits, the dynamic relationship between neuronal network elements remains elusive. With the development of optogenetic functional magnetic resonance imaging (ofMRI), it is now possible to observe whole-brain level network activity that results from modulating with millisecond- timescale resolution the activity of genetically, spatially, and topologically defined cell populations. ofMRI uniquely enables mapping global patterns of brain activity that result from the selective and precise control of neuronal populations. Advances in the molecular toolbox of optogenetics, as well as improvements in imaging technology, will bring ofMRI closer to its full potential. In particular, the integration of ultra-fast data acquisition, high SNR, and combinatorial optogenetics will enable powerful systems that can modulate and visualize brain activity in real-time. ofMRI is anticipated to play an important role in the dissection and control of network-level brain circuit function and dysfunction. In this talk, the ofMRI technology will be introduced with advanced approaches to bring it to its full potential, ending with examples of dissecting whole brain circuits associated with neurological diseases utilizing ofMRI. Short Bio: Dr. Lee received her Bachelor’s degree from Seoul National University and Masters and Doctoral degree from Stanford University, all in Electrical Engineering. She is a recipient of the 2008 NIH/NIBIB K99/R00 Pathway to Independence Award, 2010 NIH Director’s New Innovator Award, 2010 Okawa Foundation Research Grant Award, 2011 NSF CAREER Award, 2012 Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, 2012 Epilepsy Therapy Project award, 2013 Alzheimer’s Association New Investigator Award, 2014 IEEE EMBS BRAIN young investigator award, and the 2017 NIH/NIMH BRAIN grant award. As an Electrical Engineer by training with Neuroscience research interest, her goal is to analyze, debug, and engineer the brain circuit through innovative technology. 1. Hyun Joo Lee†, Andrew Weitz†, David Bernal-Casas, Ben A. Duffy, Mankin Choy, Alexxai Kravitz, Anatol Kreitzer, Jin Hyung Lee*, Activation of direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons drives distinct brain-wide responses, Neuron, 2016;91(2):412-424. 2. Jia Liu†, Ben A. Duffy†, David Bernal-Casas, Zhongnan Fang, Jin Hyung Lee*, Comparison of fMRI analysis methods for heterogeneous BOLD responses in block design studies, Neuroimage, 2017;147:390-408. 3. David Bernal-Casas, Hyun Joo Lee, Andrew Weitz, Jin Hyung Lee*, Studying brain circuit function with dynamic causal modeling for optogenetic fMRI, Neuron, 2017;93:522-532.

Uncovering the mechanisms underlying individuality

Date:
30
Tuesday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Biological Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Shay Stern
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Individuals within the same population may show stereotyped behaviors, but also ...Individuals within the same population may show stereotyped behaviors, but also unique behaviors that distinguish them from each other, a property called individuality. While individuality in behavior is widespread across species, including humans, the underlying mechanisms that generate individual-to-individual behavioral variation remain largely unknown. In my talk, I will present a newly developed imaging system for studying long-term individuality in C. elegans by monitoring the behavior of multiple individual animals across development, from egg hatching to adulthood, spanning a full generation time. I will show that while C. elegans animals have reproducible patterns of long-term behaviors, individuals within isogenic populations show consistent behavioral biases that persist across development and distinguish them from one another. I will further describe the conserved signaling pathways I uncovered that function to regulate long-term behavior, as well as to increase or decrease the degree of individuality across the population. These studies open a new window for dissecting mechanisms that generate and shape behavioral individuality across developmental timescales.​

Joint Structural Biological and Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
30
Tuesday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:30
Title: Solid-State NMR Studies of the Structure and Dynamics of an Influenza Membrane Protein for Proton Transport and Membrane Scission
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Mei Hong
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Membrane proteins carry out a myriad of biological functions such as ion conduct ...Membrane proteins carry out a myriad of biological functions such as ion conduction, substrate transport, and signaling. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy allows us to obtain exquisite atomic-level information of the structures and structural changes that underlie these functions. In this talk, I will present our investigations of the structure and dynamics of a multifunctional influenza virus membrane protein, matrix protein 2 (M2), which conducts protons and causes membrane scission. 13C, 15N, and 1H chemical shifts provided detailed information about pH-dependent conformational changes and equilibria between the open and closed states of the proton channel. Motionally averaged NMR spectra revealed microsecond-timescale dynamics of the proton-selective histidine and the gating tryptophan of the channel, while 2D exchange NMR spectra revealed millisecond-timescale dynamics of the entire tetrameric complex. Hydrogen bonding between water and the proton-selective histidine and proton exchange dynamics have been directly observed in 15N NMR spectra, giving insight into the atomic processes of proton transfer through the hydrated channel. In the second function, the M2 protein interacts with membrane cholesterol to cause scission of the emerging virus particle from the host cell in the final step of virus budding. By measuring 13C-19F distances between cholesterol and the protein, we determined the first cholesterol-binding site structure of a membrane protein in lipid bilayers. The structure gave unexpected insight into how M2 is attracted to the neck of the budding virus to cause membrane scission. Such intermolecular binding studies are crucially enabled by long-range distance constraints. We are exploring 19F-19F dipolar coupling measurements that probe distances up to 2 nm, to determine protein structures and protein-ligand interactions.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
01
Thursday
February
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: MRI/NMR detection of critical electrochemical device parameters
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Alexej Jerschow
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Batteries are drivers of alternative energy solutions and the electric vehicle m ...Batteries are drivers of alternative energy solutions and the electric vehicle market, and are central to portable electronic devices. In this talk I will describe our work on the development of techniques for assessment of Li-ion batteries, supercapacitors, and battery materials via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The goal of these studies is to analyze the devices and energy storage mechanisms in situ during charging or discharging conditions by imaging changes in both the electrolyte and the electrodes in a noninvasive fashion. In situ NMR/MRI have proven to be powerful tools to probe the structure of Li-ion batteries. These techniques have the potential to monitor dynamics and visually monitor changes in functioning electrochemical systems in real time. The operation of some energy storage devices where only the electrolyte is involved in the electrochemical process (such as supercapacitors) can only be studied in situ, as the electrolyte concentration gradients will relax as a potential is removed from the cell. I will discuss how the rf field is perturbed by the presence of conducting materials in the probe, how susceptibility shifts can be used for assessing the morphology of microstructure buildup on electrodes, how the location and concentration of both cations and anions can be followed separately. I will also discuss the opportunities for indirectly monitoring SEI layer properties and Li-dendrite growth mechanisms. Recent results on MRI of commercial-type cells, and the determination of state of charge and health will also be presented. This last development is of importance for analyzing, for example, cell-phone cells nondestructively, and may hence be of value for assessing the state of these devices under various conditions.

The annual meeting of the Israeli Live Imaging Forum

Date:
15
Thursday
March
2018
Conference
Time: 08:00
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

Frontiers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Date:
27
Tuesday
March
2018
Conference
Time: 08:00
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

Surface Micro-Spectroscopy and Spectro-Microscopy of Electrical Phenomena: Advanced methodologies for nano-characterization of electronic surface phenomena

Date:
02
Sunday
September
2018
-
06
Thursday
September
2018
Conference
Time: 08:00
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

All Events

Molecular Genetics Special Guest Seminar

Date:
21
Sunday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Title: Seeing how life starts: Imaging the molecular and cell dynamics that form the early mouse embryo
Lecturer: Dr. Nicolas Plachta
Organizer: Department of Molecular Genetics

Chemical and Biological Physics dept Seminar

Date:
18
Thursday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Title: Quantum disordered dynamics in the arrested relaxation of a molecular ultracold plasma
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Prof. Edward Grant
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Spontaneous avalanche to plasma splits the core of an ellipsoidal Rydberg gas of ...Spontaneous avalanche to plasma splits the core of an ellipsoidal Rydberg gas of nitric oxide. Ambipolar expansion first quenches the electron temperature of this core plasma. Then, long-range, resonant charge transfer from ballistic ions to frozen Rydberg molecules in the wings of the ellipsoid quenches the centre-of-mass ion/Rydberg molecule velocity distribution. This sequence of steps gives rise to a remarkable mechanics of self-assembly, in which the kinetic energy of initially formed hot electrons and ions drives an observed separation of plasma volumes. These dynamics adiabatically sequester energy in a reservoir of mass transport, starting a process that anneals separating volumes to form an apparent glass of strongly coupled ions and electrons. Short-time electron spectroscopy provides experimental evidence for complete ionization. The long lifetime of this system, particularly its stability with respect to recombination and neutral dissociation, suggests that this transformation affords a robust state of arrested relaxation, far from thermal equilibrium. We argue that this state of the quenched ultracold plasma offers an experimental platform for studying quantum many-body physics of disordered systems in the long-time and finite energy-density limits. The qualitative features of the arrested state fail to conform with classical models. Here, we develop a microscopic quantum description for the arrested phase based on an effective many-body spin Hamiltonian that includes both dipole-dipole and van der Waals interactions. This effective model offers a way to envision the quantum disordered non-equilibrium physics of this system.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
18
Thursday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study Brains and its Metabolism
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Malgorzata Marjanska
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive technique that allows th ...Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive technique that allows the measurement of multiple metabolites in the brain in vivo at the same time. These MR visible metabolites are primarily located in the intracellular compartments and preferentially concentrated in certain cell types. For instance, N-acetylasparate and glutamate are predominantly located in neurons, total creatine (creatine + phosphocreatine) and choline containing compounds are found in both neuronal and glial cells, and myo-inositol is thought to be localized exclusively in astrocytes. In the first part of my presentation, I will focus on the application of 1H MRS to study aging of the brain and brain tumors. In the second part of my presentation, I will concentrate on hyperpolarized 13C work in the animal brain which focuses on validating the ability to quantitatively estimate the TCA cycle rate and examination of the effect of various levels of brain activity on the detection of metabolic products from hyperpolarized pyruvate.

Windows to the Brain: Advances in Optical Imaging for Understanding Neural Circuit Function

Date:
16
Tuesday
January
2018
Conference
Time: 08:30-17:30
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology

Aqueous Nanoscale Systems

Date:
07
Sunday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:00
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Prof. Sylvie Roke
Organizer: Department of Materials and Interfaces
Abstract: Water is the most important liquid for life as well as for the environment. ... Water is the most important liquid for life as well as for the environment. In liquid water there is a hydrogen bonding network that originates from the interactions of H atoms with neighboring O atoms from other water molecules. This network reorganizes itself on the femtosecond (10-15 s) time scale and leads to transient liquid structuring on the nanoscale. Because of its complexity, the relationship between the unique properties of water and its molecular structure have not been solved. Techniques that can provide femtosecond structural information over multiple length scales can help. To do so, we developed nonlinear light scattering and imaging tools to access molecular structural information of aqueous solutions and interfaces. With these methods we have found nanoscale ordering in dilute salt solutions, and probe the structure of aqueous nanoscopic interfaces relevant for biology: lipid droplets, liposomes and water droplets. The optical properties of water can also be used to determine the electrical potential (voltage) of interfaces. This unique readout is useful for chemistry, neurology and device characterization. In this presentation I will give an overview of the field and our findings.

“To see beyond the dot: recent advances in Imaging Flow Cytometry”

Date:
04
Thursday
January
2018
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:00-10:00
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Dr. Ziv Porat
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

High precision correlated light and electron microscopy

Date:
31
Sunday
December
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Camelia Botnar Building
Lecturer: Dr. Ori Avinoam
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

Neural activity imaging reveals computational principles in the neuromodulatory system

Date:
27
Wednesday
December
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Takashi Kawashima
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Prof. Alon Chen alon.chen@weizmann.ac.il tel: 4490 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il

From perception to action: imaging human brain function

Date:
24
Sunday
December
2017
Conference
Time: 08:30-13:30
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology

Life Science Colloquium

Date:
04
Monday
December
2017
Colloquium
Time: 11:00-12:00
Title: Imaging Immunity – Using Advanced Optical Microscopy to Develop a Spatiotemporal Understanding of Host Defense
Location: Dolfi and Lola Ebner Auditorium
Lecturer: Prof. Ronald Germain
Organizer: Life Sciences

Machine Learning and Statistics Seminar

Date:
29
Wednesday
November
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:30
Title: Inverse Problems and Unsupervised Learning with applications to Cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM)
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Roy Lederman
Organizer: Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science

Machine Learning and Statistics Seminar

Date:
29
Wednesday
November
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:30
Title: Inverse Problems and Unsupervised Learning with applications to Cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM)
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Roy Lederman
Organizer: Department of Mathematics

Machine Learning and Statistics Seminar

Date:
29
Wednesday
November
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:30
Title: Inverse Problems and Unsupervised Learning with applications to Cryo-Electron Microscopy (cryo-EM)
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Roy Lederman
Organizer: Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics

Terrestrial glints seen from deep space: cloud ice crystals detected from the 1st Lagrangian point

Date:
26
Sunday
November
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Sussman Family Building for Environmental Sciences
Lecturer: Alex Kostinski
Organizer: Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Abstract: The deep space climate observatory (DSCOVR) spacecraft resides at the 1st Lagran ...The deep space climate observatory (DSCOVR) spacecraft resides at the 1st Lagrangian point about one million miles from Earth, where roughly the solar pull balances the terrestrial one. A polychromatic imaging camera onboard delivers nearly hourly observations of the entire sun-lit face of the Earth. Many images contain surprisingly bright flashes of light over both ocean and land. We construct a yearlong time series of flash latitudes, scattering angles and oxygen absorption to demonstrate that the flashes over land are specular reflections off tiny cloud ice platelets. Such deep space detection of tropospheric ice can be used to constrain the likelihood of oriented crystals and their contribution to Earth albedo. These glints may help detecting starlight glints off faint companions in our search for habitable exoplanets.

Shorter pulses and lower average laser power reduce photodamage during two-photon imaging of microdomain Ca2+ transients in fine astrocyte processes.

Date:
13
Monday
November
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:00
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Biological Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Martin Oheim
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences

Shorter pulses and lower average laser power reduce photodamage during two-photon imaging of microdomain Ca2+ transients in fine astrocyte processes.

Date:
13
Monday
November
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:00
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Biological Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Martin Oheim
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences

Challenging the sensory division of labor in the brain. Lessons from the deafs’ sense of rhythm and tactile braille reading in the sighted.

Date:
07
Tuesday
November
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Marcin Szwed
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Ehud Ahissar ehud.ahisar@weizmann.ac.il Tel:4574 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: It is established that the brain is capable of large-scale reorganization follow ...It is established that the brain is capable of large-scale reorganization following sensory deprivation or injury. What is less clear is what are the rules that guide it. In the blind, many visual regions preserve their task specificity despite being recruited for different sensory input; ventral visual areas, for example, become engaged in auditory and tactile object-recognition. However, we are interested in two questions. First, is sensory deprivation necessary for such task-specific reorganization, or can it happen in non-deprived individuals? In this series of experiments, during 9 months we taught Braille, a tactile alphabet, to sighted individuals and observed the resulting changes with structural and functional MRI. (Siuda, Krzywicka, Bola et al, eLife, 2016). Second, we wondered whether task-specific reorganization is unique to the visual cortex, or alternatively, is it a general principle applying to other cortical areas. Here, we enrolled deaf and hearing adults into an fMRI experiment, during which they discriminated between rhythms. In hearing individuals, rhythm processing is performed mostly in the auditory domain. Our prediction was that if task-specific reorganization applies to the human auditory cortex, performing this function visually should recruit the auditory cortex in the deaf (Bola, Zimmerman et al., PNAS, 2017).

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
29
Sunday
October
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 16:00
Title: Diffusion of Intracellular Metabolites: a Compartment Specific Probe for Microstructure and ‎Physiology
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Prof. Itamar Ronen
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Intracellular metabolites that give rise to quantifiable MR resonances are excel ...Intracellular metabolites that give rise to quantifiable MR resonances are excellent structural probes for the intracellular space, and are oftentimes specific, or preferential enough to a certain cell type to provide information that is also cell-type specific. In the brain, N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu) are predominantly neuronal/axonal in nature, whereas soluble choline compounds (tCho), myo-inositol (mI) and glutamine (Gln) are predominantly glial. The diffusion properties of these metabolites, examined by diffusion weighted MR spectroscopy (DWS) exclusively reflect properties of the intracellular milieu, thus reflecting properties such as cytosolic viscosity, macromolecular crowding, tortuosity of the intracellular space, the integrity of the cytoskeleton and other intracellular structures, and in some cases – intracellular sub-compartmentation and exchange. The presentation will introduce the basic methodological concepts of DWS and the particular challenges of acquiring robust DWS for accurate estimation of metabolite diffusion properties. Subsequently, the unique ability of DWS to characterize cell-type specific structural and physiological features will be demonstrated, followed by several applications of DWS to discern cell-type specific intracellular damage in disease, especially in multiple sclerosis (MS) and in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). Also discussed are the advantages and the challenges of performing DWS at ultrahigh field will follow, and the possibilities of combining DTI/DWI and DWS in a combined analysis framework aimed at better characterizing tissue microstructural properties in health and disease. The presentation will conclude with examples of the potential of DWS to monitor and quantify cellular energy metabolism, where enzymatic processes may affect the diffusion properties of metabolites involved in metabolism.

"Image Scanning Microscopy and Metal Induced Energy Transfer: Enhancing Microscopy Resolution in All Directions"

Date:
19
Thursday
October
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Title: Special Seminar
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Prof. Jörg Enderlein
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology
Abstract: Classical fluorescence microscopy is limited in resolution by the wavelength of ...Classical fluorescence microscopy is limited in resolution by the wavelength of light (diffraction limit) restricting lateral resolution to ca. 200 nm, and axial resolution to ca. 500 nm (at typical excitation and emission wavelengths around 500 nm). However, recent years have seen a tremendous development in high- and super-resolution techniques of fluorescence microscopy, pushing spatial resolution to its diffraction-dictated limits and much beyond. One of these techniques is Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM). In ISM, the focus of a conventional laser-scanning confocal microscope (LCSM) is scanned over the sample, but instead of recording only the total fluorescence intensity for each scan position, as done in conventional operation of an LCSM, one records a small image of the illuminated region. The result is a four-dimensional stack of data: two dimensions refer to the lateral scan position, and two dimensions to the pixel position on the chip of the image-recording camera. This set of data can then be used to obtain a super-resolved image with doubled resolution, completely analogously to what is achieved with Structured Illumination Microscopy. However, ISM is conceptually and technically much simpler, suffers less from sample imperfections like refractive index variations, and can easily be implemented into any existing LSCM. I will also present recent results of combining ISM with two-photon excitation, which is important for deep-tissue imaging of e.g. neuronal tissue, and for performing non-linear coherent microscopy such as second-harmonic generation. A second method which I will present is concerned with achieving nanometer resolution along the optical axis. It is called Metal Induced Energy Transfer or MIET and is based on the fact that, when placing a fluorescent molecule close to a metal, its fluorescence properties change dramatically. In particular, one observes a strongly modified lifetime of its excited state (Purcell effect). This coupling between an excited emitter and a metal film is strongly dependent on the emitter’s distance from the metal. We have used this effect for mapping the basal membrane of live cells with an axial accuracy of ~3 nm. The method is easy to implement and does not require any change to a conventional fluorescence lifetime microscope; it can be applied to any biological system of interest, and is compatible with most other super-resolution microscopy techniques which enhance the lateral resolution of imaging. Moreover, it is even applicable to localizing individual molecules, thus offering the prospect of three-dimensional single-molecule localization microscopy with nanometer isotropic resolution for structural biology.

Monitoring treatment response by imaging oncogenic rewiring and immune microenvironment changes, through combining whole body imaging with tissue / exosome-based approaches

Date:
18
Wednesday
October
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Title: Special Guest Seminar
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Prof. Tony Ng
Organizer: Department of Biological Regulation

G-INCPM Special Seminar - Prof. Yuval Ebenstein, Dept. of Chemical Physics, School of Chemistry, Tel-Aviv Univ. - "Beyond NGS - Single-Molecule Genomics"

Date:
03
Tuesday
October
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:30
Location: Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine
Lecturer: Prof. Yuval Ebenstein
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing all fields of biological res ...Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing all fields of biological research but it fails to extract the full range of information associated with genetic material. Complementary genomic technologies that analyze individual, unamplified genomic DNA are filling the gaps in the capabilities of NGS. Using such technologies we gain access to the structural variation and long range patterns of genetic and epigenetic information. Recent results from our lab demonstrate our ability to detect and map the epigenetic marks 5-methylacytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine as well as various forms of DNA damage on individual genomic DNA molecules. This new technology allows genetic and epigenetic variation calling on the single cell level without the need to process single cells.

Imaging how cells decide their fate, shape and position in the early mouse embryo

Date:
17
Sunday
September
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Dr. Nicolas Plachta
Organizer: Department of Molecular Genetics
Details: Senior Principal Investigator HHMI International Scholar EMBO Young Investigator Institute of Molecular & Cell Biology Agency for Science, Technology & Research (A*STAR) http://www.imcb.a-star.edu.sg/php/np.php
Abstract: ABSTRACT During development, each cell must resolve its fate, shape and positio ...ABSTRACT During development, each cell must resolve its fate, shape and position. Revealing how these decisions are made is critical to understand how embryos form, yet their real time control in mammals is unknown. Because fixed specimens cannot capture in vivo cell dynamics, we use imaging technologies to study single cells directly in live mouse embryos. We recently combined fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and photoactivation to show how the transcription factors Oct4 and Sox2 bind to DNA to determine the first cell fates of the embryo. We also designed methods to study how cells regulate their mechanical properties, and how they reorganize their actin and microtubule cytoskeletons to establish the first forms of tissue architecture. We discovered a new class of filopodia which helps cells to polarize and achieve embryo compaction, a role for cortical tension in driving the formation of the pluripotent inner mass, and a new type of non-centrosomal microtubule organizing center (MTOC) directing intracellular transport and differentiation in the embryo.

G-INCPM Special Seminar - Prof. Tamar Flash, Dept. of Computer Science & Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute - "Principles and strategies in the control of human movement: behavioral, modeling and brain imaging studies"

Date:
13
Wednesday
September
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:15
Location: Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine
Lecturer: Prof. Tamar Flash
Organizer: Life Sciences
Abstract: In my talk I will discuss several recent research directions that we have taken ...In my talk I will discuss several recent research directions that we have taken to explore the different principles underlying the construction and control of complex human upper arm and gait movements. In these studies we combine experimental recordings of human movements with the development of mathematical models aiming at providing rigorous quantitative descriptions of human movement and investigating the underlying neural control strategies. One important topic I will focus on is motor compositionality, exploring the nature of the motor primitives underlying the construction of complex movements at different levels of the motor hierarchy and the topic of motor coordination and the mapping between different control levels. The second topic I will focus on is motion kinematics and timing, describing a series of behavioral and brain imaging studies demonstrating the strong coupling between motion production and perception. Finally, I will illustrate the application of the new gained understanding in studies of different neurological movement disorders.

New Leica DMi8 S

Date:
24
Monday
July
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Title: Live-­‐Cell Imaging and Photo-­‐Manipulation
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Dr.Jens Peter Gabriel
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

AMO Special Seminar

Date:
18
Tuesday
July
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:15
Title: Towards high precision frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Gil Porat
Organizer: Department of Physics of Complex Systems
Abstract: High precision spectroscopy of few-electron atoms and ions is strongly motivated ...High precision spectroscopy of few-electron atoms and ions is strongly motivated by the need to test fundamental theory (e.g., quantum electrodynamics) in simple systems, amenable to precise calculation for comparison with experimental measurement. Additionally, transitions from the ground state are most susceptible to both QED and nuclear structure effects, making them appealing as tools for testing nuclear structure theory. The frequencies of transitions from the ground state in many such systems reside in the extreme ultraviolet range of the electromagnetic spectrum (XUV, wavelengths of 10-120 nm). However, spectroscopic resolution in the XUV is severely limited by the availability of appropriate sources of XUV radiation. In this talk I will discuss our experimental method of generating an XUV frequency comb laser, and our progress in scaling up the power of this laser in order to enable the highest spectroscopic precision in the XUV to date.

Developmental Club Series 2016-2017

Date:
12
Wednesday
July
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Title: Towards anatomical and transcriptional profiling of intact organs with tissue clearing and custom microscopy
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Alon Greenbaum
Organizer: Department of Molecular Genetics

Simple integration of asymmetric inputs computes directional selectivity in Drosophila

Date:
11
Tuesday
July
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Brain Research
Lecturer: Eyal Gruntman
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Dept of Neurobiology-Students & Postdocs Seminar Benoziyo Building Room 113 Host: Prof. Nachum Ulanovsky nachum.ulanovsky@weizmann.ac.il tel: 6301 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: The detection of visual motion is a fundamental neuronal computation that serves ...The detection of visual motion is a fundamental neuronal computation that serves many critical behavioral roles, such as encoding of self-motion or figure-ground discrimination. For a neuron to extract directionally selective (DS) motion information from inputs that are not motion selective it is essential to integrate across multiple spatially distinct inputs. This integration step has been studied for decades in both vertebrate and invertebrate visual systems and given rise to several competing computational models. Recent studies in Drosophila have identified the 4th-order neurons, T4 and T5, as the first neurons to show directional selectivity. Due to the small size of these neurons, recordings have been restricted to the use of calcium imaging, limiting timescale and direct measurement of inhibition. These limitations may prevent a clear demonstration of the neuronal computation underlying DS, since it may depend on millisecond-timescale interactions and the integration of excitatory and inhibitory signals. In this study, we use whole cell in-vivo recordings and customized visual stimuli to examine the emergence of DS in T4 cells. We record responses both to a moving bar stimulus and to its components: single position bar flashes. Our results show that T4 cells receive both excitatory and inhibitory inputs, as predicted by a classic circuit model for motion detection. Furthermore, we show that by implementing a passive compartment model of a T4 cell, we can account not only for the DS response of the cell, but also for its dynamics.

DeltaVison OMX

Date:
29
Thursday
June
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30-13:30
Title: Ultra-­‐fast Structured Illumination Microscopy for live-­‐cell
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Przemysław Fleszar
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
29
Thursday
June
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Sub-milliherz magnetic spectroscopy with a nanoscale quantum sensor
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Alex Retzker
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Precise timekeeping is critical to metrology, forming the basis by which standar ...Precise timekeeping is critical to metrology, forming the basis by which standards of time, length and fundamental constants are determined. Stable clocks are particularly valuable in spectroscopy as they define the ultimate frequency precision that can be reached. In quantum metrology, where the phase of a qubit is used to detect external fields, the clock stability is defined by the qubit coherence time, and therefore determines the spectral linewidth and frequency precision. I will present a demonstration of a quantum sensing protocol for oscillating fields where the spectral precision goes beyond the sensor coherence time and is limited by the stability of a classical clock. Using this technique, we observe a precision in frequency estimation scaling as1/T^{3/2}for classical fields. The narrow linewidth magnetometer based on single quantum coherent spins in diamond is used to sense magnetic fields with an intrinsic frequency resolution of 607µHz, 8 orders of magnitude narrower than the qubit coherence time

Measurements of resonant transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms

Date:
15
Thursday
June
2017
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Eli Sarid
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Comparison of the properties of matter and antimatter is an important basic phys ...Comparison of the properties of matter and antimatter is an important basic physics problem. Measurements of energy transitions in trapped antihydrogen and their comparison to the transitions in hydrogen atoms can be used as a sensitive test of CPT symmetry. The ALPHA collaboration in CERN first demonstrated trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms in 2010 [1], demonstrating later long time capture of 15 minutes and more. As a first demonstration of introducing resonant transitions between levels of trapped antihydrogen atoms [2], ALPHA used microwave radiation (2012) to induce transitions between the hyperfine levels of the ground state of the antiatoms. Last year (2016) we performed the first ever measurement of the resonant transition 1S→2S in antihydrogen, using two-photon laser excitation with 243 nm light [3]. These initial measurements indicated that the antihydrogen 1S→2S transition energy is equal to its hydrogen counterpart at the level of about 2×10-10. With improved techniques that enable us now to trap on average 14 antiatoms per trial, ALPHA plans to perform increasingly precise spectroscopy CPT tests. A new system is also being constructed to enable measurements of the gravitational free fall of antihydrogen. [1] Trapped Antihydrogen, Nature 468,673 (2010). [2] Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms, Nature, 483, 439 (2012). [3] Observation of the 1S–2S transition in trapped antihydrogen, Nature, 541, 506 (2017).

AMO Special Seminar

Date:
14
Wednesday
June
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:15
Title: Quantum cascade lasers and frequency combs: towards chip-based optical chemical sensors
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Jérôme Faist
Organizer: Department of Physics of Complex Systems
Abstract: The mid-infrared and terahertz spectral range is key to many applications for se ...The mid-infrared and terahertz spectral range is key to many applications for sensing and imaging, as many molecules have their fundamental vibration modes in that frequency region. Using traditional multipass cells and single frequency quantum cascade lasers, detection of light molecules with sup-ppb sensitivity and isotopic selectivity has been achieved. There is a strong interest in extending these results to multiple gases and to miniaturized, portable systems. Towards this goal, the recent demonstration of comb operation in quantum cascade lasers opens up new avenues for broadband spectroscopy. We recently demonstrated a comb device delivering 1 watt of optical power over a bandwidth of more than 100cm-1 at 8um wavelength. These devices were achieved by a engineering the waveguide dispersion using plasmonic resonances. We also discuss the prospects of performing self-referencing after achieving an octave-spanning gain in the Terahertz.

Clustering of dendritic activity during decision making

Date:
13
Tuesday
June
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Boaz Mohar
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Prof. Ilan Lampl ilan.lampl@weizmann.ac.il tel: 3179 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Neighboring neurons in motor cortex exhibit diverse selectivity during sensation ...Neighboring neurons in motor cortex exhibit diverse selectivity during sensation, movement preparation, and movement execution. Neuronal selectivity could emerge from diverse mechanisms, including selective connectivity and nonlinear interactions of synaptic inputs in dendrites. We studied dendritic integration in the anterior motor cortex of mice performing a tactile discrimination task with a delayed response (Guo and Li et al., 2014). We constructed a two-photon microscope that allows rapid (~15 Hz) imaging of up to 300 µm of contiguous dendrite while resolving calcium transients in individual dendritic spines. Two galvanometers and a remote focusing mirror (Botcherby et al., 2008) steer 16 kHz lines (24 µm extent) produced by a resonant mirror arbitrarily in three dimensions. Pyramidal neurons were labeled sparsely with GCaMP6f in transgenic mice. We imaged spine and dendritic calcium transients, as well as somatic calcium transients associated with action potentials. We developed methods to computationally remove the influence of backpropagating action potentials (bAPs), which allowed us to quantify the selectivity of spines and dendritic segments during sensation, movement preparation, and movement execution. Nearby spines and dendritic segments share similar selectivity (length constant of signal correlation, ~30 µm). This clustering was more often seen in distal than in proximal dendrites. Using a measure of local autocorrelation, we also found that this reflects distinct “hotspot” locations on the dendrite where nearby dendrite and spines are co-active in time. Hotspot selectivity was correlated with the behavioral selectivity of somatic spikes, suggesting that these locations may have privileged influence over the output of the cell.

Andor Dragonfly - High speed confocal imaging Platform

Date:
06
Tuesday
June
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:30-11:30
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Dr. Bruno Combettes
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
25
Thursday
May
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: NMR and NQR in liquids entrapped in confined space: application to MRI study of biological systems
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Gregory Furman
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Special Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
23
Tuesday
May
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00
Title: Imaging Physiology & Metabolism by MRI
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof Dean Sherry
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

ISM2017- The 51st Annual Meeting of the Israel Society for Microscopy

Date:
22
Monday
May
2017
-
23
Tuesday
May
2017
Conference
Time: 08:00
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

Celldiscoverer 7 - Automated Live Cell Imaging and Screening

Date:
21
Sunday
May
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30-10:30
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Dr. Sebastian Gliem
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
18
Thursday
May
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: The utility of measuring extracellular free-water by diffusion MRI
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Ofer Pasternak
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

IDEA Bio-Medical- WiScan® Live Cell Imaging System Hermes

Date:
17
Wednesday
May
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:30-15:30
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities
Details: IDEA Bio-Medical's Hermes WiScan® High Content Screening Imaging System A Wide Field Fluorescence & Bright Field Scanner for Rapid Acquisition of High Quality Images

"Single-molecule spectroscopy of the Myc-Max-Mad transcription factor network "

Date:
16
Tuesday
May
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Dr. Renee Vancraenenbroeck
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

Frontiers in statistical physics and cancer genomics

Date:
16
Tuesday
May
2017
Conference
Time: 08:00
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Contact: http://

Special Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
09
Tuesday
May
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00
Title: NMR Experiments for One and Two Receivers
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Eriks Kupce
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Can 13C-direct detection experiments be more sensitive than their 1H detected co ...Can 13C-direct detection experiments be more sensitive than their 1H detected counterparts? We show one such example focusing on the impact of t1-noise and the ways to reduce it or avoid it altogether. The applications include so far difficult measurements of 15N-13C couplings at the natural isotopic abundance [1]. NMR experiments involving multiple receivers provide a unique way of increasing the sensitivity and information content of data recorded in a given period of time [2-4]. We present a comprehensive series of such experiments designed for simultaneous detection of abundant nuclei, such as 1H, 19F and 31P, as well as samples enriched with magnetically active isotopes including 13C and 15N. The multiple receiver experiments are categorized into three main types – (a) parallel acquisition, (b) sequential acquisition and (c) interleaved experiments. The optimum implementation is shown to depend on the relaxation properties of the involved nuclei as well as the intrinsic sensitivity of the directly observed nuclei. Many of these experiments are amenable to further reduction of experiment time by combining them with other fast NMR techniques, such as Hadamard NMR, non-uniform sampling, spatial encoding or rapid pulsing methods. We believe that the multi-receiver technology will boost the development of new NMR experiments as well as NMR research in general, making the NMR instruments more efficient and making the NMR spectroscopy even more unique in the universe of analytical tools and experimental techniques.

Example 2 for internal event node

Date:
08
Monday
May
2017
-
10
Wednesday
May
2017
Retreat
Time: 10:00 - 12:30
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre ...
Organizer: Department of ...

Example 1 for internal event node

Date:
08
Monday
May
2017
-
10
Wednesday
May
2017
Retreat
Time: 10:00 - 12:30
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre ...
Organizer: Department of ...

Wrinkling of Human Brain Organoids on a Chip Driven by Mechanical Instabilities

Date:
30
Sunday
April
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Title: WIS OPTICAL IMAGING CLUB
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Eyal Karzbrun
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

AMO Special Seminar

Date:
03
Monday
April
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:00-14:00
Title: From Optical Clocks to Nano-Friction in Ion Coulomb Crystals
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Tanja E. Mehlstäubler
Organizer: Department of Physics of Complex Systems
Abstract: Time and frequency are the most accurately measurable quantities in physics. Wit ...Time and frequency are the most accurately measurable quantities in physics. With relative frequency inaccuracies as low as 10-18, optical clocks open up a new field of search for deviations in the predictions of Einstein’s general relativity, tests of modern unifying theories and the development of new sensors for gravity and navigation. However, in order to exploit their full potential, optical ion clocks need to integrate over many days to weeks. Scaling up the number of ions for optical clock spectroscopy is a natural way to significantly reduce the integration time, but was hindered so far by the poor control of the dynamics of coupled many body systems. Our research aims to use ion Coulomb crystals, i.e. many-body systems with complex dynamics, for precision spectroscopy. We have developed scalable linear ion traps with reduced axial micromotion to store multiple ions for clock spectroscopy. Linear chains of 115In+ ions are sympathetically cooled by 172Yb+ ions. Using resolved sideband spectroscopy on the narrow 2S1/2 → 2D5/2 transition in 172Yb+, we have characterized our ion trap for optical clock operation with systematic frequency uncertainties below 10-19. Storing large ion Coulomb crystals with a high level of control enables us to study many-body physics with trapped ions. The realization of topological defects in 2D crystals opens up a new research field of non-equilibrium dynamics and nonlinear physics in ion Coulomb crystals. We will present recent results on the study of tribology and transport in such a system.

AMO Special Seminar

Date:
02
Sunday
April
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:15-11:30
Title: Quantum limits of sensing and imaging: Fundamental science while developing technology
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Prof. Animesh Datta
Organizer: Department of Physics of Complex Systems
Abstract: Seeking technological application of quantum information science is a widespread ...Seeking technological application of quantum information science is a widespread predilection at the present, particularly in sensing and imaging. Yet, most of the efforts have been limited to a single phase estimation problem, which very few practical applications are. I will show how our attempts to harness the technological potentials of quantum sensing and imaging in its full generality is leading us towards a better understanding of quantum mechanics.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
30
Thursday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Structure-Based Medical Imaging
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Yonina Eldar
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

"Dynamics and interactions of intrinsically disordered proteins probed with single-molecule spectroscopy"

Date:
28
Tuesday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Dr. Franziska Zosel
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

Could life-long memory be encoded in the pattern of holes in the Perineuronal net?

Date:
28
Tuesday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Varda Lev-Ram
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Prof. Amiram Grinvald Amiram.grinvald@weizmann.ac.il tel: 3833 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Abstract: The PNN is a specialized form of extracellular matrix, initially depos ...Abstract: The PNN is a specialized form of extracellular matrix, initially deposited around selected neurons during critical periods of development in specific parts of the brain, interrupted by holes where synapses occur. We postulate that the PNN comprises a longer-lived structural template and that new memories are created by cutting new holes in the PNN or by expanding existing holes to enable formation of new synapses or to strengthen existing ones. A basic premise of this hypothesis is that the PNN, should undergo very low metabolic renewal from the first age at which memories are retained until senescence, whereas the active constituents of synapses turn over much more frequently and would therefore be poorer substrates for permanent information storage, unless they are equipped with incredibly accurate copying mechanisms (R.Y.Tsien PNAS 2013). Experimental tests of the hypothesis: 1.PNN longevity; using 15N Spirulina diet for Stable Isotope Labeling in Mammals (SILAM) we compare the lifetimes of PNN proteins vs. synaptic components in Enriched Environment (EE) vs. Conventional Cages (CC), ending the pulse-chase by changing to 14N diet at P45. Analysis by Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) of four different brain areas indicate: a. Low turnover rate for PNN proteins while synaptic proteins were at the noise level of 15N /14N ratio. b. Higher turnover of PNN proteins in EE vs. CC cages c.Variability in the retention of 15N in PNN proteins between brain areas. 2.Localization of the long-lasting proteins; Imaging of 15N /14N ratio using Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (nanoSIMS) localized and verified the MudPit finding that PNN turnover is very slow. 3. Spatial occupation of the PNN holes; 2 dimension electron microscopy (EM) and 3D volumes of Serial Block Face Scanning EM reveal that neurons engulfed in PNN have more than 95% of their plasma membrane surface occupied by PNN or synapses. 4. Inhibition of PNN holes modulation during strong memories acquisition; we examined the role and timing of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) activity in memory consolidation using pharmacological inhibitors in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Our results demonstrate that MMP inhibition during fear induction: a. Does not affect acquisition b. Significantly impairs long-term memory (30 days) c. Is dose dependent d. That memory impairment increases with time. So far the hypothesis is supported by the results of the above tests.

The shifting structure of the clathrin coat as revealed by correlative light and electron tomography

Date:
21
Tuesday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Dr. Ori Avinoam
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) is a basic cellular function playing essenti ...Clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) is a basic cellular function playing essential roles in nutrient uptake, membrane recycling, synaptic transmission and viral infection. At the level of individual core components, CME might be considered well understood because we have an abundance of structural, biochemical, biophysical and dynamic information. However, researchers remain divided between two contradictory models for how clathrin coated vesicles (CCVs) form. The first, suggests that clathrin assembles as a planar lattice that subsequently bends as the membrane invaginates. For this to happen, complex rearrangements within the clathrin network must occur during budding. The second model avoids this difficulty by proposing that large flat clathrin lattices are not precursors of CME, and that at sites of CME, clathrin directly assembles to produce the curved coat as the membrane invaginates. To distinguish between these models, we applied a high precision correlative fluorescence microscopy (FM) and electron tomography (ET) approach to locate CCPs and obtain 3D information about their ultrastructure. We found that clathrin is recruited to the membrane early in endocytosis, before any significant membrane bending has occurred, and then rearranges as the membrane bends to wrap around the forming vesicle. Furthermore, we showed by FM that clathrin undergoes rapid exchange with the cytoplasmic pool at sites of endocytosis, providing insights into the mechanism driving coat rearrangement. To obtain structural information on the organization of the clathrin lattice at different stages of maturation, we performed correlated cryo -FM and -ET (Cryo-CLEM) on intact, genome edited mammalian cells expressing clathrin-GFP. We targeted sites of endocytosis using the fluorescence and resolved the positions of individual clathrin molecules within the assembled lattice. Our preliminary data suggests that lattice geometry changes during maturation from a flat sheet to a curved sphere. This fundamental knowledge in necessary to achieve a holistic understanding of this basic cellular function.

Spring school for advanced imaging in biological research

Date:
15
Wednesday
March
2017
-
16
Thursday
March
2017
Conference
Time: 08:00
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
13
Monday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Title: General Phase Regularized MRI Reconstruction with Phase Cycling
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Frank Hai Ong
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
09
Thursday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: MRI and NMR in 1T permanent magnets: challenges and solutions
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Peter Bendel
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

G-INCPM-Special Seminar - Prof. Yaron Shav-Tal, Faculty of Life Sciences & Nano-medicine Research Center, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University - "Quantifying mRNA transcription on single alleles in single cells"

Date:
08
Wednesday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:15
Location: Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine
Lecturer: Prof. Yaron Shav-Tal
Organizer: Faculty of Biochemistry
Abstract: I will describe approaches used to follow and quantify transcription kinetics fr ...I will describe approaches used to follow and quantify transcription kinetics from single genes in fixed and living cells, using single-molecule RNA FISH and live-cell imaging. These studies have allowed us to examine transcription at high resolution during the cell cycle and to reveal new levels of regulation. We have also generated a method to tag endogenous genes on the mRNA and protein levels, and this has allowed us to use RNA FISH to differentiate between the transcriptional activity of various alleles of the same gene in single cells, to characterize a cellular response to stress, and to screen for compounds that interfere with the stress response.

Chemical Physics Department Guest Seminar

Date:
05
Sunday
March
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Title: TEERs for DEERs - advanced spectroscopy of correlated spins in molecules using a single spin sensor‎
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr Amit Finkler
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Defects in the solid state are potentially suitable candidates for nanoscale sen ...Defects in the solid state are potentially suitable candidates for nanoscale sensing and imaging. Among these, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has gained wide publicity due to its long coherence time, stability and wide temperature and frequency ranges of operation. With recent reports on the sensing of electron and nuclear spins from single proteins, we attempt to go one step further to the realm of correlated spins. I will present measurements of electron spins in spin-labeled molecules both at room temperature and at low temperature. I will show that it is possible to detect the dipolar coupling between two spin labels in a doubly-labeled peptide using a scheme we call "triple electron-electron resonance". This is a necessary step towards sensing of spins in correlated-electrons systems. Together with quantum-assisted schemes and improvements in signal readout, I will offer methods with which we can tackle challenges in chemical physics, laying out a potential platform for a spin network.

Oxytocin for autism? Insights from genetic mouse models

Date:
23
Thursday
February
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Olga Penagarikano
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Dr.Ofer Yizhar ofer.yizhar@weizmann.ac.il tel: 6957 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder is a heterogeneous condition characterized by deficits ...Autism Spectrum Disorder is a heterogeneous condition characterized by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviors/restricted interests. Mouse models based on human disease-causing mutations provide the potential for understanding associated neuropathology and developing targeted treatments. Genetic, neurobiological and imaging data provide convergent evidence for the CNTNAP2 gene as a risk factor for autism and other developmental disorders. First, I will present data from my postdoctoral work demonstrating construct, face and predictive validity of a mouse knockout for the Cntnap2 gene, providing a tool for mechanistic and therapeutic research. In fact, through an in vivo drug screen in this model we found that administration of the neuropeptide oxytocin dramatically improves social deficits. Strikingly, reduced neuropeptide levels in this model seemed to account for the behavioral response. Last, I will present ongoing work in my lab evaluating the oxytocin system and related neurotransmitters in this model. Alterations in the oxytocin system and/or dysfunction in its related biological processes could potentially be more common in autism than previously anticipated.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
16
Thursday
February
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Flexible and compact hybrid metamaterials for enhanced in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Rita Schmidt
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Nonlinear coherences among multiple time-series:Use of MRI data to identify brain temporal organization and directionality of information flow

Date:
09
Thursday
February
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Gadi Goelman
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Prof. Rafi Malach rafi.malach@weizmann.ac.il tel:2758 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Coherences and time-lags are commonly used to infer directionality of informatio ...Coherences and time-lags are commonly used to infer directionality of information flow in electrophysiology EEG, MEG and MRI. Current approaches, however, enable to calculate only pairwise (linear) coherences. I will describe a novel high-order statistical framework to calculate coherences among multiple coupled time-series. The full mathematical expressions for 4 time-series will be described and its validity will be demonstrated by computer simulations of the Kuramoto model. Quartets of time-series (i.e. brain regions) will be defined as linear, nonlinear or of higher (>4) order. By this, whole systems (e.g. motor, visual) will be categorized as linear or nonlinear. Based on the assumption that MRI phase delays are associated with time of information flow, the temporal hierarchy and directionality of several brain systems will be described. To fully categorize the information flow within 4th order networks, I will introduce the concept of Motifs that describes the pathway trajectories within networks. The advantages of motifs in brain research will be demonstrated by comparing motifs of the ventral versus the dorsal streams systems and in males versus females.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
09
Thursday
February
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Two-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Spectroscopy and Relaxation
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Samuel Cousin
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

"Imaging wave function of few body systems: He dimers, trimers and the Efimov state of He3"

Date:
06
Monday
February
2017
Colloquium
Time: 11:00-12:15
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Reinhard Doerner
Organizer: Faculty of Chemistry
Abstract: Two and three Helium atoms form very unusual and extreme quantum systems. Their ...Two and three Helium atoms form very unusual and extreme quantum systems. Their typical extend is ten to hundred times bigger than radius of the atoms, the wavefunction lives almost completely in the classically forbidden tunneling region and the binding energy of these systems is about 8 orders of magnitude smaller than that of a normal molecule. We will show how coincidence detection of charged fragments and super strong laser fields can be used to image the wave functions of these Helium quantum giants and will show the first experimental images of an Efimov state.

Genomic Exploration of Introgression and Adaptation in Sunflower

Date:
31
Tuesday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15
Location: Ullmann Building of Life Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Sariel Hübner
Organizer: Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences
Details: http://www.migal.org.il/Migal/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=610&LNGID=1&FID=1177&IID=5482
Abstract: In the lab we integrate experimental ecology and agricultural practices with hig ...In the lab we integrate experimental ecology and agricultural practices with high-throughput genomics and bioinformatics to study the genetics of adaptation and domestication in crop plants and their wild relatives. Much of our work is focused on identifying the genetic changes that underlie the formation of new varieties, and more generally, the genotype-phenotype-environment interaction.

Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy of protein dynamics expanding scope and timescales

Date:
29
Sunday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Title: OPTICAL IMAGING CLUB
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Hagen Hofmann
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

From Single Nuclei RNA-Sequencing to Dynamics of Neuronal Regeneration

Date:
29
Sunday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Naomi Habib
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Prof. Alon Chen alon.chen@weizmann.ac.il tel: 4490 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Throughout adult life, adult neuronal stem cells (NSCs) continuously generate ne ...Throughout adult life, adult neuronal stem cells (NSCs) continuously generate neurons in discrete brain regions. I am interested in harnessing this natural regenerative process for repairing the diseased and aging brain. To effectively use this regenerative capacity in a clinical setting requires first an advanced understanding of NSCs, adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration during neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Study of these areas, however, is challenging, as it requires profiling rare continuous processes in the adult brain. To this end, I developed sNuc-Seq, a method for profiling RNA in complex tissues with single nuclei resolution by RNA-sequencing, and Div-Seq, for profiling RNA in individual dividing cells. I applied sNuc-Seq to study the adult hippocampus brain region, revealing new cell-type specific and spatial expression patterns. I then applied Div-Seq to track transcriptional dynamics of newborn neurons within the adult hippocampal neurogenic region and to identify and profile rare newborn GABAergic neurons in the adult spinal cord. I am currently developing follow-up technologies to sNuc-Seq and applying them to study the cross-talk between neurons, NSCs, glia and immune cells during neurodegenerative diseases and its role in inhibiting or promoting regeneration. I will continue to work towards advancing our ability to mitigate and even reverse neurodegenerative disease and age-related pathologies. Incorporating in my work techniques from molecular neuroscience, single cell genomics, genome engineering and computational biology.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
26
Thursday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: New microstructural and functional MRI contrasts at ultrahigh field
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Noam Shemesh
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Towards a multi-scale quantification of the structure and function of the neurovascular interface

Date:
17
Tuesday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Pablo Blinder
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Dr.Yaniv Ziv yaniv.ziv@weizmann.ac.il tel: 4275 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Abstract: Proper brain function depends on the intricate interface between neuro ...Abstract: Proper brain function depends on the intricate interface between neurons, astrocytes and the nearby blood vessels that supply then with oxygen and nutrients. Coupling between neuronal activity and local vascular responses represent both a fundamental physiological process and also underpins the mechanism behind BOLD-imaging techniques. We aim to systematically map the structure-function organization of this interface and use this knowledge as morphological framework to interpret neurovascular dynamics. At the system level, we find a puzzling lack of spatial organization between neuronal units of the lemniscal pathway and the surrounding vasculature. I will share these findings and describe our current efforts to map the neuro-vascular microcircuitry. To understand whether neurons wire with some preference into the vasculature, we started to simulate the expected “random" statistics for this morphological interface. In addition, I will share preliminary data showing a differential neuronal response to surgically induced hypo- and hyper-perfusion conditions; suggest a potential modulation role of systemic pressure on neuronal activity.

Using 10X Genomics Chromium Technology for Single Cell 3' Application

Date:
17
Tuesday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:00-10:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Annika Branting
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

"Copper homeostasis in bacteria cells – exploring cellular metal transfer mechanisms using EPR spectroscopy"

Date:
17
Tuesday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 00:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Dr. Sharon Ruthstein
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

The CONNECTOME: structure, function and evolution

Date:
10
Tuesday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Yaniv Assaf
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Dr.Yaniv Ziv yaniv.ziv@weizmann.ac.il tel: 4275 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: At every aspect of our lives – function determines structure. Just as new road ...At every aspect of our lives – function determines structure. Just as new roads are built between developing cities, network wires are laid to adjust to faster communication demand and social networks are formed under a common goal of individuals, also the brain needs to remodel it's connectome to adapt to the daily and continuous change in functional demands. The connectome refers to several functional and structural characteristics of brain connectivity that span from the micron level (neural circuits) to the macroscopic level (long scale pathways). This complex network (which includes the white matter but not only) is responsible for the information passage through different regions. If the integrity of the connectome is affected, the brain functions abnormally. Hence, the connectome is intrinsic to everything that the brain does. Without the ability to explore the connectome in-vivo, it was traditionally considered to be stable and fixed. Indeed, most effort in white matter research was invested in describing the geographical appearance of the network and the areas it connects. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and specifically diffusion MRI opened, for the first time, a window into the in-vivo physiology of white matter and the connectome. By measuring micro-structural features of white matter there is a new opportunity to explore also its physiology and dynamics. In the presentation we will demonstrate how the connectome can be measured and what are its macro and micro-structural features, we will describe its evolutional characteristics by comparing connectomes of 100 different mammals and we will the role of the connectome in brain plasticity and how dynamic this feature is.

Vision and Robotics Seminar

Date:
05
Thursday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:15-13:30
Title: Taking Pictures in Scattering Media
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Shai Avidan
Organizer: Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science
Abstract: Pictures taken under bad weather conditions or underwater often suffer from low ...Pictures taken under bad weather conditions or underwater often suffer from low contrast and limited visibility. Restoring colors of images taken in such conditions is extremely important for consumer applications, computer vision tasks, and marine research. The common physical phenomena in these scenarios are scattering and absorption - the imaging is done either under water, or in a medium that contains suspended particles, e.g. dust (haze) and water droplets (fog). As a result, the colors of captured objects are attenuated, as well as veiled by light scattered by the suspended particles. The amount of attenuation and scattering depends on the objects' distance from the camera and therefore the color distortion cannot be globally corrected. We propose a new prior, termed Haze-Line, and use it to correct these types of images. First, we show how it can be used to clean images taken under bad weather conditions such as haze or fog. Then we show how to use it to automatically estimate the air light.Finally, we extend it to deal with underwater images as well. The proposed algorithm is completely automatic and quite efficient in practice. Joint work with Dana Berman (TAU) and Tali Treibitz (U.of Haifa)

Joint Chemical Physics and Materials and Interfaces Seminar

Date:
03
Tuesday
January
2017
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00
Title: Carbon Monoxide Adsorption and Oxidation on Copper Surfaces: From Atoms to Complexity
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Dr Baran Eren
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: An extensive array of surface-sensitive characterization techniques that provide ...An extensive array of surface-sensitive characterization techniques that provide microscopic and spectroscopic information have revealed the structure of many crystal surfaces in their pristine clean state. Most of these studies are carried out in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV), which makes it possible to control sample composition and cleanliness to better than 0.1% of a monolayer. Starting from those by Irving Langmuir, such surface science studies constituted the core of our present understanding of solid surfaces. Under realistic ambient conditions, however, our knowledge is far less extensive. Of particular interest is the structure and chemical state of surfaces in dynamic equilibrium with gases and liquids at ambient conditions. Ambient pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) and high pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HPSTM) were developed for this purpose, i.e., understanding the atomic, electronic, and chemical structure of surfaces in the presence of reactant gases and liquids. My talk will have three parts. The first part will be about ‘following surface structures’. I will show that the most compact and stable surfaces of Cu undergo massive reconstructions in the presence of CO at room temperature at pressures in the Torr range, and they decompose into two-dimensional nanoclusters, which is a double effect of low cohesive energy of Cu and the high gain in adsorption energy at the newly formed under-coordinated sites. Finally, it will be shown that the surfaces which are broken up into clusters are more active for water dissociation, a key step in the water gas shift reaction. Such a behavior opens a new paradigm, especially for other soft metals like gold, silver, zinc, etc., and it is clear that we need more of such studies. I will also briefly comment on the predictive power of my results and whether we can extrapolate it to other metals and reactants other than CO. The second part will centered on ‘following surface reactions’ with APXPS. This technique is so powerful that it allows us to monitor the changes in the chemical state of the adsorbent, as well as coverage of adsorbates. As an example, I chose the CO oxidation reaction on Cu surfaces. It will be shown that if Cu remains metallic, the activation energy of the reactions scales with the oxygen binding energy, which is the manifestation of the Sabatier effect. In the presence of both CO and O2, however, the surface gets covered with 1-3 nm of Cu2O layer, which is more active than metallic Cu, but no CuO forms under the pressure and temperature range chosen in my study. The final part will be about the possible future directions which I find important in the field for the next 5-10 years. Especially I will mention new approaches I plan to take for technique development which can offer measurements at higher pressures, as well as extend the outreach of the available techniques to other fields where solid-gas and solid-liquid interactions play an essential role.

CORAL LANDSCAPES AT THE MICROSCALE

Date:
25
Sunday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Camelia Botnar Building
Lecturer: ORR SHAPIRO
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities
Abstract: Coral Landscapes at the Microscale Orr Shapiro Reef building corals rely on a ...Coral Landscapes at the Microscale Orr Shapiro Reef building corals rely on a tightly regulated symbiosis between the coral animal, endocellular microalgae, and additional microbial components. The complex network of chemical and metabolic interactions is collectively known as a holobiont. Coral pathogens disrupt these interactions, leading to the breakdown of the symbiosis and death of the coral host. Over the past decades, under warming climate and increased anthropogenic pressure, coral disease outbreaks are becoming both more frequent and more widespread, raising concerns regarding the future of these important ecosystems. Elucidating the microscale processes underlying coral disease is inherently difficult due to the physical and biochemical complexity of the different microenvironments formed around and within the coral colony. In my talk I will present a number of microfluidic-based systems developed specifically to study corals, and coral-pathogen interactions, at the microscale, and the multiple new insights we have thus far gained from bringing this type of live-imaging approach into the study of reef building corals.

"The protein folding problem: Slow progress using ultrafast spectroscopy and kinetics"

Date:
20
Tuesday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Prof. Elisha Haas
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

AMO Special Seminar

Date:
13
Tuesday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:15-14:15
Title: Quantum Logic Spectroscopy of Trapped Ions
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Piet O. Schmidt
Organizer: Department of Physics of Complex Systems
Details: Falafel in the lobby at 12:50
Abstract: Precision spectroscopy is a driving force for the development of our physical un ...Precision spectroscopy is a driving force for the development of our physical understanding. However, only few atomic and molecular systems of interest have been accessible for precision spectroscopy in the past, since they miss a suitable transition for laser cooling and internal state detection. This restriction can be overcome in trapped ions through quantum logic spectroscopy. Coherent laser manipulation originally developed in the context of quantum information processing with trapped ions allows the combination of the special spectroscopic properties of one ion species (spectroscopy ion) with the excellent control over another species (logic or cooling ion). In my talk I will show that quantum logic spectroscopy enables the development of accurate optical clocks based on aluminium and highly-charged ions as well as precision spectroscopy of broad and non-closed transitions in calcium isotopes. Finally, I present non-destructive internal state detection and spectroscopy of molecular ions using quantum logic. This represents a first step towards extending the exquisite control achieved over selected atomic species to much more complex molecular ions. Applications of quantum logic spectroscopy ranging from the measurement of atomic, molecular and nuclear properties over optical clocks for relativistic geodesy to the search for a variation of fundamental constants will be discussed.

The anaerobic shortcut: cytosolic subunit of fumarate reductase modulates the rotation of the flagellar motor

Date:
06
Tuesday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-10:30
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Anna Koganitsky
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: E. coli is well equipped for living in rapidly changing conditions of its natura ...E. coli is well equipped for living in rapidly changing conditions of its natural ecosystem. For example, it is able to navigate by modulating the rotation of the bidirectional flagellar motor, and it has the ability of switching to anaerobic respiration that involves fumarate reduction, when oxygen is limited. A decade ago it was discovered that there is a crosstalk between the fumarate reduction system and the flagellar motor: fumarate reductase (FRD) was found to be required for flagellar clockwise (CW) rotation, which is essential for the navigation process. Here, by combining biochemical techniques with super resolution microscopy, we found that FRD affects the motor via its cytosolic subunit FrdA, and that this subunit preferentially binds to the CW state of the flagellar rotary unit FliG. This suggests that FrdA stabilizes the CW state of individual FliG subunits, thus increasing the probability of CW-conformational spread over the entire rotor. We further found that a natural increase in FrdA expression levels during microaerophilic growth conditions increases the probability of CW rotation to a level shown earlier to be more efficient for navigation. Thus, FrdA-motor interaction may be a mean of adjusting the navigation efficiency to the microaerophilic conditions found in the mammalian gut.

Multipurpose DARPin Binders for Innovative Applications - Identifying Affinity Reagents for Challenging Tasks

Date:
05
Monday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:15-14:30
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Dr. Jonas V. Schaefer
Organizer: Department of Molecular Cell Biology
Abstract: Multipurpose DARPin Binders for Innovative Applications - Identifying Affinity R ...Multipurpose DARPin Binders for Innovative Applications - Identifying Affinity Reagents for Challenging Tasks Jonas V. Schaefer, PhD Head of High-Throughput Binder Selection Facility Department of Biochemistry, University of Zurich, Switzerland Obtaining high-quality and reliable affinity reagents remains a major challenge for many scientific projects. Frequently, commercial antibodies fail to behave as advertised or only work for a subset of samples. Therefore, we established a High-Throughput Binder Selection Facility, generating hundreds of high-end binders (so called DARPins) that specifically recognize different, non-overlapping epitopes at their targets with high affinities. Those binders have already been used in a variety of applications both in-house and by numerous international collaboration partners, improving existing and enabling novel, so far unfeasible applications. Within my presentation, I will give insights into our streamlined and robust binder generation pipeline and show examples of DARPin applications (amongst others, DARPins have been successfully employed in advanced microscopy, pull-downs, immunohistochemistry, for co-crystallization, as intracellular biosensors, and even have been therapeutically validated).

The 4th Israeli ImageStreamX user meeting Recent advances in Imaging Flow Cytometry

Date:
05
Monday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:00-12:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities
Details: Schedule: 9:00 Gathering and refreshments 9:15 Recent advances in Imaging Flow Cytometry Analysis Ziv Porat, Weizmann Institute of Science 9:45 Identification and classification of the malaria parasite blood developmental stages Elya Dekel, Weizmann Institute of Science 10:05 High-Throughput Analysis of Golgi structure Inbal Wortzel, Weizmann Institute of Science 10:25 Coffee break 10:40 Single cell imaging and quantification of amyloid intercellular propagation Dorin Sade, Tel-Aviv University 11:00 Elucidating the delivery mechanism of quaternized-starch based siRNA nanoparticles Eliz Amar-Lewis, Ben-Gurion University 11:20 Folowing extracellular vesicles uptake by Imaging Flow Cytometry Yifat Ofir-Birin, Weizmann Institute of Science 11:40 Single cell quantitative analysis of proteinprotein interactions and post-translational modifications Ayelet Avin, Weizmann Institute of
Abstract: Imaging Flow Cytometry combines speed, sensitivity, and phenotyping abilities fo ...Imaging Flow Cytometry combines speed, sensitivity, and phenotyping abilities found in flow cytometry with the detailed imagery and functional insight of microscopy, for an extensive range of novel applications. It allows quantitating cellular morphology and the intensity and location of fluorescent probes on, in, or between cells, even in rare sub-populations and highly heterogeneous samples. The wide range of applications used include studying intracellular localization, shape changes and morphology, co-localization, nuclear translocation, cell signaling, T cell – APC interactions, DNA damage and repair, cell death and apoptosis, phagocytosis and internalization, FISH, vesicle trafficking, and many others.

A circuit architecture for angular integration in Drosophila

Date:
01
Thursday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Gaby Maimon
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Prof. Nachum Ulanovsky nachum.ulanovsky@weizmann.ac.il tel: 6301 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: Mammalian brains store and update quantitative internal variables. Primates and ...Mammalian brains store and update quantitative internal variables. Primates and rodents, for example, have an internal sense of whether they are 1 or 10 meters away from a landmark and whether a ripe fruit is twice or four times as appetizing as a less ripe counterpart. Such quantitative internal signals are the basis of cognitive function, however, our understanding of how the brain stores and updates these variables remains fragmentary. In this talk, I will discuss imaging and perturbation experiments in tethered, walking Drosophila. The goal of these experiments is to determine how internal variables are calculated by the tiny Drosophila brain and how these variables influence behavior. Specifically, in the Drosophila central complex a set of heading neurons have been described, whose activity tracks the fly’s orientation, similar to head direction cells in rodents. However, the circuit architecture that gives rise to these orientation tracking properties remains largely unknown in any species. I will describe a set of clockwise- and counterclockwise-shifting neurons whose wiring and calcium dynamics provide a means to rotate the heading system’s angular estimate over time. Shifting neurons are required for the heading system to properly track the fly's movements in the dark, and, their stimulation induces a rotation of the heading signal in the expected direction and by the expected amount. The central features of this circuit are analogous to models proposed for head-direction cells in rodents and may thus inform how neural systems, in general, perform addition.

Vision and Robotics Seminar

Date:
01
Thursday
December
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:15-13:30
Title: Applications of Subspace and Low-Rank Methods for Dynamic and Multi-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Michael (Miki) Lustig
Organizer: Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science
Abstract: There has been much work in recent years to develop methods for recovering signa ...There has been much work in recent years to develop methods for recovering signals from insufficient data. One very successful direction are subspace methods that constrain the data to live in a lower dimensional space. These approaches are motivated by theoretical results in recovering incomplete low-rank matrices as well as exploiting the natural redundancy of multidimensional signals. In this talk I will present our research group's efforts in this area. I will start with describing a new decomposition that can represent dynamic images as a sum of multi-scale low-rank matrices, which can very efficiently capture spatial and temporal correlations in multiple scales. I will then describe and show results from applications using subspace and low-rank methods for highly accelerated multi-contrast MR imaging and for the purpose of motion correction.

G-INCPM - Special Seminar - Mr. Daniel G. Sipes, Director, Advanced Automation Technologies, Genomics Institute of the Novartis, Research Foundation (GNF) - "Advances in Automation to Accelerate Drug Discovery at GNF"

Date:
30
Wednesday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Mr. Daniel G. Sipes
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: At GNF, we have been developing and implementing high throughput miniaturized as ...At GNF, we have been developing and implementing high throughput miniaturized assays and robotic systems to enable drug discovery for over 15 years. This presentation will review how our platform systems have adapted to and incorporated the latest scientific and technical advancements. Our flagship high throughput screening systems, capable of running hundreds of thousands of compounds per day against cellular or biochemical assays, continue to demonstrate their effectiveness. We have continued to expand the utility of GNF-built automation, as well as other commercially available technologies, to enable cost effective and rapid cell-based profiling of small molecules as well as biologics. In addition, this approach has allowed scientists to run primary cell assays on a scale not otherwise practical. Examples will include instruments and automation to greatly accelerate high-content phenotypic assays and flow cytometry. The latest advancements in reagent dispensing, detection and robotics will further the deployment of these technologies into areas such as highly multiplexed transcriptional readouts and Next Gen Sequencing.

Electromagnetic stimulation in neural networks and in the brain

Date:
29
Tuesday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Elisha Moses
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact: naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il
Abstract: External stimulation of the brain is emerging as a novel methodology for treatme ...External stimulation of the brain is emerging as a novel methodology for treatment of mental illness and possibly also for cognitive enhancement. Electric and magnetic and even ultrasound stimulation of neurons have all shown to be effective in eliciting brain activation, but the actual effect on a single neuron remains unclear. Combining experiments on excitation in neuronal cultures, animals and humans with theory and numerical simulations, we have been able to unravel the contribution of electric and of magnetic pulses delivered to the brain. We show that today’s magnetic stimulation techniques do not optimally target neurons in the brain, and that they can be considerably enhanced with simple technical modifications involving rotating magnetic fields and prolonged pulse durations. We end by suggesting practical clinical trials for the near future.

Can cells count? Investigating T cell collectivity Using live cell imaging

Date:
27
Sunday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Michal Polonsky
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
24
Thursday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Saturation Transfer of Reversibly Bound Xenon in Different Molecular Environments
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr Leif Schröder
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance suffers from low sensitivity for spectroscopy and ima ...Nuclear Magnetic Resonance suffers from low sensitivity for spectroscopy and imaging applications. For certain applications, this sensitivity issue can be solved by means of hyperpolarized xenon that is reversibly bound to host structures. Manipulation by saturation transfer then allows for further sensitivity enhancement (Hyper-CEST technique). This “xenon biosensor” approach yields new opportunities for the design of targeted MRI contrast agents and sensing of molecular environments as such host-guest complexes maintain a spectral dimension for multiplexing and controlled switchable contrast. The CEST performance strongly depends on the host structure and the solvent, thus providing further parameters to explore. This talk will give an overview of xenon biosensor MRI and NMR analysis of different host-guest systems.

How human white-matter studies can be improved beyond diffusion imaging:The quantitative MRI perspective

Date:
22
Tuesday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Aviv Mezer
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Host: Dr.Yaniv Ziv yaniv.ziv@weizmann.ac.il tel: 4275 For assistance with accessibility issues, please contact: naomi.moses@weizmann.ac.il

Chemical Physics Department Guest Seminar

Date:
22
Tuesday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:30
Title: Probing High Temperature Chemistry with Spectroscopy
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Dr Joshua Baraban
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Processes and species encountered at high temperatures are important in a wide r ...Processes and species encountered at high temperatures are important in a wide range of scientific and applied fields including combustion, atmospheric chemistry, and molecular astronomy. Understanding these reactions and molecules, however, is difficult due to the complex nature of the chemistry that occurs in extreme environments. I will discuss novel spectroscopic tools, both conceptual and experimental, for attacking molecular questions in high temperature chemistry. These capabilities not only enable the complete mapping of kinetic reaction networks, but also open new windows onto high temperature behavior by providing an additional dimension of quantum state specific data.

How the road directs traffic: Control of axonal transport by microtubule patterns and dynamics

Date:
22
Tuesday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Dr. Shaul Yogev
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Non-centrosomal microtubule (MT) arrays are the main cytoskeleton substrate for ...Non-centrosomal microtubule (MT) arrays are the main cytoskeleton substrate for cargo transport in many differentiated cells, including neurons, myotubes and epithelia. How MT organization-i.e. polymer length, number and spacing-is regulated, and how it impinges on transport is unclear. This question is critical in neurons, which, due to the length of their processes, are particularly vulnerable to impaired transport. We developed a light-based method for analyzing neuronal MT organization that circumvents the need for electron microscopy reconstructions and is compatible with live imaging of cargo transport and MT dynamics. I will describe how age, MT associated proteins and signaling pathways control the architecture of the neuronal MT network. I will also discuss how, in turn, MT organization and dynamics determine the progression of axonal transport, and outline future questions raised by these studies.

New perspectives on the origin of masses

Date:
17
Thursday
November
2016
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Gilad Perez
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: After the discovery of the Higgs particle at the Large Hadron Collider, the Higg ...After the discovery of the Higgs particle at the Large Hadron Collider, the Higgs mechanism is expected to account for all observed elementary masses. However, the origin of fermions masses, in particular that of the matter constituents, remains an open question. We discuss the theoretical and experimental efforts done to address this issue. We then consider a new mechanism that ameliorates the hierarchy problem, namely accounts for the lightness of the Higgs mass. Quite generically, the above problems lead to models with new weakly interacting light fields that couple to matter. It motivates us to consider non-collider experimental approaches to search for these new particles. We propose that ultra precision measurements of isotope shift spectroscopy, in table-top experiments, could lead to an improved reach to such form of new physics, potentially with world record sensitivity.

In vivo veritas – Using CRISPR genome editing to model cancer in mice

Date:
17
Thursday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Daniel Schramek
Organizer: Department of Molecular Genetics
Abstract: Modern Genetics is revealing virtually all the genetic and epigenetic alteration ...Modern Genetics is revealing virtually all the genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with human malignancies. Mining this information for Precision Medicine is predicated on weeding out ‘bystander’ mutation and identifying the ‘driver’ mutations responsible for tumor initiation, progression and metastasis, as only the latter have diagnostic and therapeutic value. Secondly, we have to elucidate how driver mutations alter the fundamental molecular pathways governing tissue growth and identify actionable nodes within a given cancer gene network that can be exploited therapeutically. The massive quantity of data emerging from cancer genomics therefore demands a corresponding increase in the efficiency and throughput of in vivo models to comprehensively assess all putative cancer genes. We therefore developed a versatile functional genomics toolbox that enables us to generate and analyze thousands of somatic gene knock-out or overexpression clones within a single animal in a matter of weeks. Ultrasound-guided in utero injections allow us to selectively transduce fluorescently-labeled lentiviral CRISPR or ORF libraries into various organs of living mouse embryos. Subsequent mosaic analysis, next-generation sequencing and library barcode deconvolution enables us to identify genes that regulate proliferation, differentiation and survival. Of note, this analysis not only assess the gene function in an physiological and immune-competent microenvironment, but can also be combined with any mouse model and treatment schedule to faithfully model human malignancies. Using this technique, we have completed several proof-of-concept screens and elucidated several novel tumor suppressor genes in Head&Neck. Currently, we are performing several multiplexed in vivo CRISPR screens to uncover context-specific cancer vulnerabilities, novel immune regulators and genes that confer resistance to chemo- or targeted therapies. In this seminar, I will highlight the utility of direct in vivo screening to integrate human cancer genomics and mouse modeling for rapid and systematic discovery of cancer driver mutations and novel cancer vulnerabilities.

Magnetic Resonance Special Seminar

Date:
16
Wednesday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Title: Robust Methods and Sequences for In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Using Spatiotemporal Encoding
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Amir Seginer
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: An important drawback of Magnetic resonance (MR) is speed, and a number of metho ...An important drawback of Magnetic resonance (MR) is speed, and a number of methods have been developed over the years to speed up acquisition. Two related families of ultrafast acquisition methods based on ‘Spatiotemporal Encoding’ (SPEN) — replacing the standard Fourier encoding/decoding — have been developed in our group, of Prof. Lucio Frydman. The first, for NMR spectroscopy, accomplishes single scan acquisitions of 2D spectra, thus enabling orders of magnitude acceleration compared to traditional NMR spectroscopy. This acceleration enables, for example, to follow dynamic process in real time using 2D NMR spectroscopy. The second family of methods, for MRI, includes a number of ‘Hybrid-SPEN’ variants. Although no acceleration is achieved by Hybrid-SPEN compared to standard, also ultrafast, echo planar imaging (EPI) sequences, much greater robustness to magnetic field inhomogeneities is achieved, thus resolving an important handicap of EPI. Despite their benefits, these two SPEN methods suffer from hardware inaccuracies, as does EPI, that have required manual intervention for reconstructing final high-quality spectra (NMR case), or images (MRI case). I shall present the work I have done to (i) develop automatic and easy to use tools for correcting the spectrum and image artifacts (resulting from the above hardware imperfections). (ii) Combine SPEN-based 2D spectroscopy principles with imaging principles to develop spatiotemporally encoded spectroscopic imaging (SPENSI): a new MRSI sequence with larger spectral bandwidths and even faster acquisitions than existing options.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
03
Thursday
November
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Screen Printed Flexible MRI Coils
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Michael Lustig
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Today’s MRI receive coil arrays provide increased signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) ...Today’s MRI receive coil arrays provide increased signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) over standard single receivers. This excess SNR is often traded for either higher resolution or faster acquisitions. However, poor fit to patients can negate the array’s SNR gains. In fact, it is common, in clinical settings, to see coil elements offset from the anatomy to the point that the coils have poor fill-factor. This fit problem is exacerbated in pediatric imaging where patients come in different sizes. In this work we present a new approach for designing and manufacturing MRI coils. We print coils using screen printing onto flexible plastic substrates. The resulting devices are extremely thin, light and flexible. In the first part of the presentation we will discuss the process and tradeoffs in using printing for making MRI coils as well as detailed analysis and characterization of the devices followed by demonstrating their use for pediatric MRI. In the second part, we will discuss a new application of these devices for minimally invasive interventional applications. Because our devices are extremely thin and made of plastic material and conductive inks, they are nearly transparent to ultrasound. This makes them ideal for use in MR Guided High Intensity Focused Ultrasound where the ultrasound transducers must have a clear acoustic path to the body, and therefore traditional coils are often displaced away from the body. We demonstrate feasibility for both head and body applications. This is a joint work with Prof. Ana Claudia Arias, Joseph Corea and Balthazar Lechene with collaborations with Stanford Radiology and GE Healthcare.

Fast distortion–matched T1 mapping for fMRI using Optimized MR Fingerprinting

Date:
27
Tuesday
September
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Ouri Cohen
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: In functional MRI (fMRI) anatomical localization is typically provided by a Magn ...In functional MRI (fMRI) anatomical localization is typically provided by a Magnetization Prepared Gradient Echo (MPRAGE) pulse sequence with an echo-planar-imaging (EPI) sequence used for the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast images. Unfortunately, EPI suffers from geometric distortions due to magnetic field inhomogeneities so the acquired data needs to be distortion-corrected prior to analysis, inevitably introducing errors into the data. In previous work we have described a multi-inversion EPI sequence that is distortion matched to the BOLD data. By exciting multiple slices sequentially with varying inversion times and fitting the data to a model quantitative T1 maps were generated for anatomical localization albeit at the cost of relatively lengthy scan time. In this talk I will describe an optimized version of the sequence that uses concepts originally developed for optimized MR Fingerprinting to accelerate the acquisition 4-5 fold. The utility and versatility of our method is demonstrated in vivo on both 3T and 7T scanners.

Imaging the Immune System II

Date:
20
Tuesday
September
2016
-
21
Wednesday
September
2016
Conference
Time: 08:00
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

Life Sciences Special Seminar

Date:
14
Thursday
July
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:00
Title: Human Genomics, Precision Medicine, and Improving Human Health
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Prof. Eric Green
Organizer: Life Sciences

Super Resolution Microscopy: Symposium and Hands-on Sessions with a STED Microscope

Date:
11
Monday
July
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:00-14:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Details: The program: Monday 11.7 - STED Super Resolution symposium Botnar Auditorium, Belfer Building, The Weizmann institute of Science 09:00 Get together. Light refreshments will be served 09:30 Prof. Benny Geiger, Weizmann Institute Multi (dimensional-scale-modal) biology and the expectations from future SR microscopy 10:00 Dr. Hartmann Harz, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich STED Imaging in an Imaging Facility 10:40 Dr. Jakub Chojnacki , University of Oxford, Oxford Advanced microscopy studies of HIV-1 dynamic structure and virus-cell interactions 11:20 coffee break 12:00 Dr. Jan Schloetel, University of Bonn, Bonn Nanoscale organization of plasma membrane proteins via ionic and protein-protein interactions 12:40 Dr. Matthias Reus, Abberior Instruments, Gottingen STED system introduction for the hands on sessions. 13:20 Conclusion and lunch break 14:00 First hands-on session Best regards, The Symposium committee, Yoseph Addadi, Tali Dadosh, Moshe Gabso, Benny Geiger

2. Seeing is Believing – Recent Advances in Imaging Flow Cytometry

Date:
29
Wednesday
June
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00-13:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Ziv Porat
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

The ins and outs of subaerial lithotrophic biofilm in arid and hyper-arid environments

Date:
29
Sunday
May
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Sussman Family Building for Environmental Sciences
Lecturer: Nimrod Wieler
Organizer: Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Abstract: Rock surfaces support microbial communities that may be involved in weathering p ...Rock surfaces support microbial communities that may be involved in weathering processes. In arid and hyper-arid environments microbes dominate rock surfaces and were linked to weathering because the scarcity of water excludes classical mechanisms that erode rocks. We studied subaerial biofilms coating arid rocks, focusing on sedimentary rocks that feature comparable weathering morphologies but different lithologies. We hypothesized that weathering is fashioned by salt erosion and mediated by biofilms that play dual roles: stabilizing the rock surfaces by coating, and enhancing salt crystallization by preventing rapid desiccation (thus mitigating and facilitating erosion processes, respectively). We used a combination of microbial and geological techniques to characterize the rocks morphologies and their subaerial biofilms. Deep sequencing and microscopy analyses suggest that bacterial diversity is low, dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Actinobacteria. Together these phyla formed laminar biofilms that secrete extracellular polymeric substances to aggregate microfabrics and mitigate desiccation, reducing water loss by over 40%. The biofilm was detected only in rocks exposed to the atmosphere, present distinct architecture and burrowed up to 9 mm beneath the surface, protected by sedimentary deposits. A closer inspection revealed that the composition of the biofilm was tightly linked to dust bacterial communities but distinct from soil communities. Moreover, the biofilm composition changed according to the rock location rather than its’ lithology, suggesting that microclimate (dew, relative humidity and radiation) play an important role in arid weathering. Our results contradict common dogmas that considered biofilms as degrading agents and propose their role as mitigators of geomorphic processes.

Chemical probes of protease activity: applications to optical surgical guidance and drug development

Date:
24
Tuesday
May
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Prof. Matthew Bogyo
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Proteases are enzymes that often play pathogenic roles in many common human dise ...Proteases are enzymes that often play pathogenic roles in many common human diseases such as cancer, asthma, arthritis, atherosclerosis and infection by pathogens. Therefore tools that can be used to dynamically monitor their activity can be used as diagnostic agents, as imaging contrast agents for intraoperative image guidance and for the identification of novel classes of protease-targeted drugs. In the first part of this presentation, I will describe our efforts to design and synthesize small molecule probes that produce a fluorescent signal upon binding to a protease target. We have identified probes that show tumor-specific retention, fast activation kinetics, and rapid systemic distribution making them useful for real-time fluorescence guided tumor resection and other diagnostic imaging applications. In the second half of the presentation, I will present our recent advances using chemical probes to target the proteasome in the parasite pathogen Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria. The proteasome is a multi-component protease complex responsible for regulating key processes such as the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Proteasome inhibitors have been shown to be toxic for the parasite at all stages of its life cycle, including the transmissive gametocyte stages. However, all compounds that have been tested also inhibit the mammalian proteasome resulting in toxicity. We used a recently developed substrate profiling method to uncover differences in the specificities of the human and parasite 20S proteasome cores. We designed inhibitors based on amino acid preferences specific to the P. falciparum proteasome, and found that they preferentially inhibit the tryptic-like subunit β2. We determined the structure of the P. falciparum 20S proteasome bound to our inhibitor using cryo-EM and single particle analysis, to a resolution of 3.6 Å. These data reveal the unusually open P. falciparumβ2 active site and provide valuable information regarding active site architecture that can be used to further refine inhibitor design. Furthermore, we observed growth inhibition synergism with low doses of this β2 selective inhibitor in artemisinin (ART) sensitive and resistant parasites. Finally, we demonstrated that a parasite selective inhibitor attenuates parasite growth in vivo without significant toxicity to the host. Thus, the Plasmodium proteasome is a chemically tractable target for next generation anti-malarial agents.

In-toto Live Imaging of the Mouse Embryo Using Confocal and Wide-Field Microscopy

Date:
01
Sunday
May
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Rada massarwa
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

The genome in the nucleus: snaky, soft and well organized

Date:
01
Sunday
May
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:00
Location: Dannie N. Heineman Laboratory
Lecturer: Prof. Yuval Garini
Organizer: Clore Center for Biological Physics
Details: Sandwiches at 12:45
Abstract: The DNA in a human cell is ~2 meters long. Although there are no definite struct ...The DNA in a human cell is ~2 meters long. Although there are no definite structures that maintain the order in the nucleus, the genome is well organized, though dynamic. What are the mechanisms that organizes the DNA in the nucleus? Dynamic methods in live cells are ideal for studying the genome organization, which is a soft-matter structure that have no definite structure. We currently used a whole spectrum of dynamic methods in live cells that will be briefly described. We used single particle tracking (SPT) and continuous photobleacing (CP) that are adequate for live-cell imaging. The data is analyzed according to diffusion analysis methods that we developed. In normal cells, all the sites in the genome exhibit anomalous diffusion (viscoelastic) where

The Topographical Human Brain: Lessons from Biologically Inspired Approaches to Imaging

Date:
14
Thursday
April
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Amir Amedi
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: : I will review a set of biologically inspired NeuroImaging methods (i.e. method ...: I will review a set of biologically inspired NeuroImaging methods (i.e. methods that take into consideration the brain topography, neuronal adaptation and population receptive fields, brain functional connectivity and so on), that we developed and/or refined to shed light on maps and computations in the human brain. Starting from retinotopy, we used partial correlations resting-state functional connectivity analysis to show that the large-scale topographical biases in all 3 dimensions of retinotopy are preserved in individuals without any visual experience. I will discuss how this result challenges classical views of retinotopy as the key organizational principle for computations in the visual system, and further suggest plasticity principles beyond classical Hebbian learning. Next, we use virtual environments to show that key retinotopic regions (mainly in the dorsal visual stream) are recruited not only during vision-based navigation but even when early-blind and sighted-blindfolded learn to navigate these same environments using audition. I will then show how such approaches can be applied to study the whole-body somatosensory-motor system, and demonstrate that topographical gradients are far more widespread than previously known. These findings help to bridge gaps between animal and human studies, and have clinical relevance to improve and refine deep-brain-stimulation and imaging-based diagnostics. Finally, I will briefly present the development of crossmodal adaptation and multiphase spectral analysis to study topographical binding and crossmodal integration. Based on all of these results I will discuss the intriguing hypothesis that our brain is topographically organized for high-order cognitive functions as well, and discuss our plans to combine the aforementioned approaches with the use of the high-field imaging (7T) that is required to test it. I will conclude by summarizing the wide set of tools that enable us to investigate and gain novel insights into the nature of the Topographical Multisensory Human Brain mind. (Most relevant papers for the talk: Striem-Amit et al. Neuron 2012; Cerbral Cortex 2012; Curr Biol 2014; Brain 2015; Zeharia et al. PNAS 2012; J Neurosci 2015; Saadon-Grosman et al. PNAS 2015; Murray, et al. Trends Neurosci 2016 (cond. accepted); Maidenbaum et al. (in preparation)); Siuda-Krzywicka et al. Elife 2016; Sabbah et al. NeuroImage 2016 (accepted).

The 25th Pasteur-Weizmann Meeting: New Trends in Biological Microscopy

Date:
13
Wednesday
April
2016
-
14
Thursday
April
2016
Conference
Time: 08:00 - 18:30
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

Time-lapse imaging of large-scale neuronal dynamics in freely behaving mice: a new approach to study long-term memory

Date:
10
Sunday
April
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:00
Location: Dannie N. Heineman Laboratory
Lecturer: Dr. Yaniv Ziv
Organizer: Clore Center for Biological Physics
Details: Sandwiches at 12:45
Abstract: Following initial learning, information stored in memory undergoes a time- and e ...Following initial learning, information stored in memory undergoes a time- and experience-dependent evolution. Currently, the nature of this evolution at the neuronal ensemble level remains largely unknown. To obtain insight into this dynamic process we optically image memory-associated neuronal representations in large populations of single cells over long periods of time. Our work focuses on neural coding in the hippocampus, a brain structure that is important for memory of places and events. I will present new work in which we tracked the activity of large populations of hippocampal pyramidal neurons over weeks, as the mice repeatedly explored different familiar environments. Longitudinal analysis exposed ongoing environment-independent evolution of episodic representations, despite stable place code and constant remapping between the two environments. These dynamics time-stamped experienced events via neuronal ensembles that had cellular composition and activity patterns unique to specific points in time. Temporally close episodes shared a common timestamp regardless of the spatial context in which they occurred. Temporally remote episodes had distinct timestamps, even if they occurred within the same spatial context. I will discuss how these findings relate to current understanding of the role of the hippocampus in long-term episodic memory.

Pitfalls and challenges of seismic imaging and inversion

Date:
10
Sunday
April
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Sussman Family Building for Environmental Sciences
Lecturer: Evgeny Landa
Organizer: Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences

Imaging bacterial chemotaxis, from population to single molecules

Date:
27
Sunday
March
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Camelia Botnar Building
Lecturer: Oshri Afanzar
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

Chemical Physics Department Guest Seminar

Date:
22
Tuesday
March
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Title: Clusters as Surfaces
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Gereon Niedner-Schatteburg
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Clusters – in particular those of transition metals – may act like surfaces ...Clusters – in particular those of transition metals – may act like surfaces of limited size, this analogy being recognized long time ago [1,2]. We have studied the C-H bond activation of various organic molecules by naked transition metal clusters before [3], and it became mandatory to switch to simpler systems. By virtue of our tandem cryo ion trap instrument we study the adsorption kinetics of clusters under single collision conditions as well as the Infrared Multiple Photon Dissociation (IR-MPD) by application of optical parametric oscillator/amplifier (OPO/OPA) photon sources, one and two colour investigations of metal organic complexes by such technique being published [4]. Our ongoing studies of N2 and H2 cryo adsorption on Fe, Co, and Ni clusters and alike [5] revealed clearly discernible mono layer like adsorbate shells. Beyond such mere kinetics – though interesting in themselves – we recorded IR-MPD spectra of dinitrogen stretching vibrations within such [Mn(N2)m]+ cluster surface – adsorbate layer complexes by variation of their stoichiometry, n and of m alike, and in conjunction with electronic structure modelling (by DFT), and with synchrotron X-ray based studies of spin and orbital contributions to the total magnetic moments of the isolated clusters [6]. This invited presentation shall elucidate the current state of cluster adsorbate studies under cryo conditions and in isolation. It aims to put into perspective the findings from adsorption kinetics, IR spectroscopy, DFT modelling and magnetic spectroscopy. It concludes with an outlook onto the road ahead. This research originates from a long standing support by the DFG through the transregional collaborative research center SFB/TRR 88 3MET.de

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
16
Wednesday
March
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Title: Studies in Breast and Pancreas MRI
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Noam Nissan
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Measuring enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo

Date:
15
Tuesday
March
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-10:30
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Dr. Agnes Zotter
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Live-cell imaging allows the investigation of dynamic processes inside living ce ...Live-cell imaging allows the investigation of dynamic processes inside living cells, where macromolecular crowding is proposed to influence various properties of proteins. We have previously demonstrated how Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) can be used to determine binding dynamics between proteins in living cells. Here we follow catalysis within HeLa cells in real time, to determine ezymatic reaction parameters (Km, kcat) from single cell measurements and to relate them to their values in vitro under different conditions. Measurement protocols were developed for two enzymes, fluorescently labeled TEM1 β-lactamase and β-galactosidase degrading fluorogenic substrates. The enzymatic reactions were initiated by microinjection of the substrate and monitored by FRET and/or detecting the intensity change of the cleaved molecule. Our experimental setup enables us to determine enzymatic constants inside the cell. This allows determining cell-to-cell variability in catalytic efficiency. Moreover, we used mutations that affect Km and kcat to see how in vitro changes are manifested in live cells. In addition to the in vivo work, we investigate the enzymatic reaction in vitro and in HeLa cell extracts. For data analysis of the single progress curves three models were compared, (i) analytic approximation of the Lambert function, (ii) the Lambert W-function including an exponential fit and (iii) computer simulation. Our results show that there is a big difference in the catalytic efficiency in vitro compared to in vivo data, what explanation needs further studies (cellular crowding, pH, in-cell redox conditions, etc.).

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
10
Thursday
March
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Hyperpolarized MRI as means for metabolic imaging
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Dr. Rachel Katz-Brull
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Super-resolution microscopy and the 3D distribution of proteins on cellular membranes

Date:
28
Sunday
February
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Camelia Botnar Building
Lecturer: Prof. Gilad Haran
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

"Differential Sensing – Concepts and Applications"

Date:
08
Monday
February
2016
Colloquium
Time: 11:00-12:15
Title: Pearlman lecture (colloquium) - Chemistry
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Eric Anslyn
Organizer: Faculty of Chemistry
Abstract: The mammalian senses of taste and smell utilize a series of cross-reactive recep ...The mammalian senses of taste and smell utilize a series of cross-reactive receptors, rather than highly selective receptors. Our group mimics this principle with a series of synthetic and designed receptors for the analysis of complex analytes in real-life settings. The receptors derive from a combination of rational chemical design and modeling, with combinatorial synthesis techniques. Optical signaling often derives either from indicator-displacement assays, or direct modulation of the spectroscopy of the receptor. It will be shown that a union of designed receptors targeted to a class of analytes, with combinatorial methods, gives fingerprints that differentiate between the individual members of the analyte class. The strategy is to use a core-binding element that imparts a bias to each and every member of the library, ensuring affinity of the library members for the class of analytes being targeted. The design of this core derives from standard molecular recognition principles: preorganization, complementary, pair-wise interactions between receptor and analyte, and desolvation. Imparting a bias to the affinity of the library members dramatically reduces the diversity space needed in the library. The fingerprints of the solutions are created using artificial neural networks, principle component analysis, and/or discriminate analysis. The technique represents a marriage of supramolecular chemistry and pattern recognition protocols, and has become known as differential sensing. A variety of examples will be presented, ranging from applications in the biological sciences to commercial beverage analysis.

ESCRT mediated mammalian cell abscission: New tools, new players and new concepts

Date:
02
Tuesday
February
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Dr. Natalie Elia
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Conserved from archaea to mammals, ESCRT filamentous system executes membrane fi ...Conserved from archaea to mammals, ESCRT filamentous system executes membrane fission in a variety of processes in cells including viral budding, formation of multivesicular bodies, plasma membrane repair, nuclear envelope assembly and cytokinetic abscission. Yet, many of the mechanistic steps that lead to ESCRT-driven membrane fission in cells have not been resolved. We use high-resolution microscopy and molecular tools to study ESCRT driven membrane constriction and fission during cytokinetic abscission of mammalian cells. With this approach we aim to unlock the mechanistic principals of ESCRT mediated membrane fission in physiological process utilizing the ESCRT machinery for its function.

I can see clearly now

Date:
31
Sunday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Title: An overview of the recent developments in brain clearing techniques and whole brain imaging
Location: Camelia Botnar Building
Lecturer: Assaf Ramot
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities

Vision and Robotics Seminar

Date:
21
Thursday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:15-13:30
Title: Clouds in 4D
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Yoav Schechner
Organizer: Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science
Abstract: The spatially varying and temporally dynamic atmosphere presents significant, ex ...The spatially varying and temporally dynamic atmosphere presents significant, exciting and fundamentally new problems for imaging and computer vision. Some problems must tackle the complexity of radiative transfer models in 3D multiply-scattering media, to achieve reconstruction based on the models. This aspect can also be used in other scattering media. Nevertheless, the huge scale of the atmosphere and its dynamics call for multiview imaging using unprecedented distributed camera systems, on the ground or in orbit. These new configurations require generalizations of traditional triangulation, radiometric calibration, background estimation, lens-flare and compression questions. This focus can narrow uncertainties in climate-change forecasts, as we explain.

PKA signaling network: Visualizing through Macromolecular Assembly and High Resolution Imaging of the Brain

Date:
12
Tuesday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Building for Brain Research
Lecturer: Dr. Ronit Ilouz
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Room 113
Abstract: cAMP dependent Protein kinase (PKA) plays a critical role in numerous neuronal f ...cAMP dependent Protein kinase (PKA) plays a critical role in numerous neuronal functions including neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Specificity in PKA signaling is achieved in part by the four functionally non-redundant regulatory (R) subunits. The inactive holoenzyme has a dimeric R subunit bound to two Catalytic (C) subunits. The full-length holoenzyme crystal structures allow me to understand how isoform-specific assembly can create distinct holoenzyme structures that each defines its allosteric regulation. High-resolution large-scale mosaic images provide global views of brain sections and allow identification of subcellular features. Analysis of multiple regions demonstrates that the R isoforms are concentrated within discrete regions and express unique and consistent patterns of subcellular localization. Using the miniSOG technique for correlating fluorescent microscopy with electron microscopy I find RIβ in the mitochondria within the cristae and the inner membrane, and in the nucleus, modifying the existing dogma of cAMP-PKA in the nucleus. Down-regulation of the nuclear RIβ, but not RIIβ, decreased L-LTP related signaling as reported by CREB phosphorylation in primary neuronal cultures, consistent with deficits observed in RIβ knockout mice. Furthermore, we show that a point mutation in the RIβ gene, that is associated with a neurodegenerative disease, abolishes dimerization while retaining robust interaction with the catalytic subunit. As a consequence, the interaction with an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) was also diminished. This mutation abolishes the AKAP-mediated targeting of RIβ holoenzymes to specific cellular compartments, which is consistent with an accumulation of RIβ in neuronal inclusions in patients carrying this mutation. These diverse interdisciplinary tools are defining PKA signaling as highly localized complexes that are targeted to specific sites in the cell in close to proximity to substrates and other signaling molecules where activity is then regulated by local levels of cAMP and calcium as well as kinases and phosphatases.

Workshop on the Resolution Revolution in 3D Cryo-Electron Microscopy

Date:
11
Monday
January
2016
-
12
Tuesday
January
2016
Conference
Time: 00:00
Location: David Lopatie Conference Centre

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
07
Thursday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:45
Title: Single-shot MRI with exceptional resilience to magnetic field inhomogeneities
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof Lucio Frydman
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Life at the single molecule level: Single cell genomics

Date:
05
Tuesday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Sunney Xie
Organizer: Department of Immunology

Life at the single molecule level: Single cell genomics

Date:
05
Tuesday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Sunney Xie
Organizer: Department of Immunology

Novel optical tools for controlling plasticity and unique Photoactivatable Ca2+ probes for targeted imaging

Date:
04
Monday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:30
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Dr. Shai Berlin
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: : Neuronal plasticity is a unique property that describes the ability of the sys ...: Neuronal plasticity is a unique property that describes the ability of the system to undergo long-lasting changes, typically as a result of experience. This paradigm, initially discovery by Bliss and Lomo and dubbed long term potentiation (LTP), describes a scenario where the post-synaptic responses increase in strength for long durations, following a particular pre-synaptic stimulus. Conversely, LT-Depression, describes the long lasting depression of synaptic responses. Today, these phenomena are commonly used to describe the molecular model for learning and memory. A large body of work has implicated more than a hundred proteins and factors in modulating LTP and LTD, and thereby memory. Unfortunately, there is still a lively debate regarding the true necessity and exact role of each player. The need for new techniques and approaches to further explore synaptic function and dysfunction has never been more pressing, as the number of people developing neurodegenerative diseases rises exponentially to epidemic scales, with the aging population. These diseases are characterized by a strong decline in the number of synapses and in the ability of synapses to undergo plasticity, ultimately resulting in the severe decline of cognitive function- such as learning and memory. To better scrutinize synaptic plasticity and probe the function and role of its initiators (i.e. NMDA receptors and calcium ions), I have developed novel light-gated NMDA receptors and photoactivatable fluorescent Ca2+-probes to monitor synaptic activity with unmet spatio-temporal resolution and reversibility. I use the latter to examine the roles of specific NMDA-receptor subunits in plasticity.

Novel optical tools for controlling plasticity and unique Photoactivatable Ca2+ probes for targeted imaging

Date:
04
Monday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:30
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Dr. Shai Berlin
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: Neuronal plasticity is a unique property that describes the ability of the syste ...Neuronal plasticity is a unique property that describes the ability of the system to undergo long-lasting changes, typically as a result of experience. This paradigm, initially discovery by Bliss and Lomo and dubbed long term potentiation (LTP), describes a scenario where the post-synaptic responses increase in strength for long durations, following a particular pre-synaptic stimulus. Conversely, LT-Depression, describes the long lasting depression of synaptic responses. Today, these phenomena are commonly used to describe the molecular model for learning and memory. A large body of work has implicated more than a hundred proteins and factors in modulating LTP and LTD, and thereby memory. Unfortunately, there is still a lively debate regarding the true necessity and exact role of each player. The need for new techniques and approaches to further explore synaptic function and dysfunction has never been more pressing, as the number of people developing neurodegenerative diseases rises exponentially to epidemic scales, with the aging population. These diseases are characterized by a strong decline in the number of synapses and in the ability of synapses to undergo plasticity, ultimately resulting in the severe decline of cognitive function- such as learning and memory. To better scrutinize synaptic plasticity and probe the function and role of its initiators (i.e. NMDA receptors and calcium ions), I have developed novel light-gated NMDA receptors and photoactivatable fluorescent Ca2+-probes to monitor synaptic activity with unmet spatio-temporal resolution and reversibility. I use the latter to examine the roles of specific NMDA-receptor subunits in plasticity.

Using a Confocal Rheoscope to Investigate Soft Squishy Materials

Date:
04
Monday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:15
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Itai Cohen
Organizer: Department of Physics of Complex Systems
Abstract: Who among us has not spent countless hours squeezing, rubbing, and smushing gooe ...Who among us has not spent countless hours squeezing, rubbing, and smushing gooey substances like, tooth paste, silly putty, corn starch, and even bodily fluids between our fingers? If we could magnify our view and look deep within the substances we are handling what structures would we find? How, do these structures lead to the fascinating mechanical properties that we experience on the scale of our fingers. In this talk, I will focus on the behavior of colloidal suspensions that serve as a powerful model system capable of exhibiting many of these behaviors. I will discuss how we use confocal imaging in combination with Parameter Extraction from Reconstruction of Images (PERI) to locate micron sized particle positions down to a single nanometer, stress assessment from local structural anisotropy (SALSA) to image stresses at the single particle scale, and a newly developed confocal rheoscope to simultaneously exert strains and measure the macroscale suspension response. The phenomena I will discuss range from using the Green Kubo Fluctuation dissipation theorem to measure a quiescent suspensions viscosity, to uncovering the secret behind the shear thickening properties of Oobleck.

Chemical Physics Department Seminar

Date:
04
Monday
January
2016
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Title: Super-Localization Microscopy in 3D and in Multicolor
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr Yoav Shechtman
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized the field of cellula ...Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized the field of cellular imaging in recent years. Methods based on sequential localization of point emitters (e.g. PALM, STORM) enable imaging and spatial tracking at ~10-40 nm resolution, using visible light. Moreover, three dimensional (3D) tracking and imaging is made possible by various techniques, prominent among them being point-spread-function (PSF) engineering. The PSF of a microscope, namely, the shape that a point source creates in the image plane, can be modified to encode the depth (z position) of the source. This is achieved by shaping the wavefront of the light emitted from the sample, using spatial phase modulation in the pupil (Fourier) plane of the microscope. In this talk, I will describe how our search for the optimal PSF for 3D localization, using tools from information theory, led to the development of microscopy systems with unprecedented capabilities in terms of depth of field and spectral discrimination. Such methods enable fast, precise, non-destructive localization in thick samples and in multicolor; we have applied them to super-resolution imaging, tracking biomolecules in living cells and microfluidic flow profiling. Super localization microscopy holds great promise as a uniquely powerful tool for measuring nano-scale dynamics.

Chemical Physics Department Guest Seminar

Date:
30
Wednesday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:30
Title: Relaxometry and dephasing imaging of superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles at ambient conditions
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Dr Amit Finkler
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: We present a novel technique to image superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles ...We present a novel technique to image superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles via their fluctuating magnetic fields. The detection is based on the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color center in diamond, which allows optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) measurements on its electron spin structure. In combination with an atomic-force-microscope, this atomic-sized color center maps ambient magnetic fields in a wide frequency range from DC up to several GHz [1], while retaining a high spatial resolution in the sub-nanometer range [2]. We demonstrate imaging of single 10 nm sized magnetite nanoparticles using this spin noise detection technique. By fitting simulations (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) to the data, we are able to infer additional information on such a particle and its dynamics, like the attempt frequency and the anisotropy constant [3]. This is of high interest to the proposed application of magnetite nanoparticles as an alternative MRI contrast agent or to the field of particle-aided tumor hyperthermia.

Population networks : the promised land of wet computing

Date:
28
Monday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:15
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Renaud Renault
Organizer: Clore Center for Biological Physics
Details: Note DAY IS MONDAY 1pm Sandwiches et al
Abstract: Neurons grown in vitro are in theory amenable to generate and process informatio ...Neurons grown in vitro are in theory amenable to generate and process information as they normally do inside brains, enabling many ground-breaking applications including glucose-powered neural implants to repair cerebral functions, in vitro models for cognitive studies, and even new kinds of artificial intelligence. However, there is currently no consensus about how to harness the capabilities of neurons in culture or how to build robust and efficient neuronal devices. Based on the properties of cultured networks that are both resilient and experimentally accessible on the one hand, and the theoretical framework of Frank Rosenblatt’s perceptron on the other hand, we propose a new architecture for neuronal devices that can bypass many limitations of previous realizations. Our devices are divided into several neuronal populations by the mean of compartmented microchips, individually acting as cohesive « switch-like » units. Between the compartments, axon tunnels of various geometries have been developed to precisely control the directions and strengths of the connections between units, thus defining the initial computational abilities of our devices. The capacity of perceptrons to learn new computations on the fly by adjusting the strength of the connections between their units can also be implemented in such neuronal devices by exploiting synaptic plasticity, the natural ability of living neurons to change the strength of their connections when subjected to specific stimulations. Communication and learning are currently being investigated inside such devices, through a fully optical interface based on optogenetics and calcium imaging that can furthermore be implemented with off-the-shelf components. These recent theoretical and technological developments lay a solid foundation for the study of communication, computation, plasticity and learning inside living neuronal devices, and their implementation in living neuronal computers and their applications.

The effect of sensory experience on neural circuit development and refinement

Date:
24
Thursday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Xiang Yu
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. ...Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Our laboratory is interested in the molecular mechanism underlying activity-dependent neural circuit development and refinement. In recent work, we identified a novel form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience crossmodally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth reduced excitatory synaptic transmission both in the correspondent sensory cortex, and crossmodally in other sensory cortices. Synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin were bidirectionally regulated by sensory experience. Importantly, both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices, and significantly rescued the effects of whisker-deprivation or dark-rearing. Together, these results identify a novel function for oxytocin in promoting crossmodal, experience-dependent cortical development. In addition to promoting neural circuit writing, sensory experience is also critical to later stages of neural circuit refinement, such as spine pruning. In recent work, we showed that spine pruning and maturation in the mouse somatosensory cortex are coordinated via the cadherin/catenin cell adhesion complex and bidrectionally regulated by sensory experience. We further demonstrated using live imaging in cultured neurons that locally enhancing cadherin/catenin-dependent adhesion or photo-stimulating a contacting channelrhodopsin-expressing axon stabilized the manipulated spine and eliminated its neighbors. Similar effects could be induced in vivo. Finally, both enrichment-induced acceleration of spine pruning and spine maturation were abolished in the absence of endogenous β-catenin. Together, these results suggest that activity-induced inter-spine competition for β-catenin provides specificity for concurrent spine maturation and elimination, and thus is critical for the molecular control of spine pruning during neural circuit refinement.

Physical computation in animal collectives

Date:
24
Thursday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Iain Couzin
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Understanding how social influence shapes biological processes is a central chal ...Understanding how social influence shapes biological processes is a central challenge in con-temporary science, essential for achieving progress in a variety of fields ranging from the or-ganization and evolution of coordinated collective action among cells, or animals, to the dy-namics of information exchange in human societies. Using an integrated experimental and theoretical approach I will address how, and why, animals exhibit highly-coordinated collective behavior. I will demonstrate new imaging technology that allows us to reconstruct (automatcally) the dynamic, time-varying networks that correspond to the visual cues employed by organisms when making movement decisions [1]. Sensory networks are shown to provide a much more accurate representation of how social influence propagates in groups, and their analysis allows us to identify, for any instant in time, the most socially-influential individuals within groups, and to predict the magnitude of complex behavioral cascades before they actually occur [2]. I will also investigate the coupling between spatial and information dynamics in groups and reveal that emergent problem solving is the predominant mechanism by which mobile groups sense, and respond to complex environmental gradients [3]. Evolutionary modeling demonstrates such ‘physical computation’ readily evolves within populations of selfish organisms, and allowing individuals to compute collectively the spatial distribution of rsources and to allocate themselves effectively among distinct, and distant, resource patches, Without requiring information about the number, location or size of patches [4]. Finally I will reveal the critical role uninformed, or unbiased, individuals play in effecting fast and democratic consensus decision-making in collectives [5-7], and will test these predictions with experiments involving schooling fish [6] and wild baboons [8]. 1) Strandburg-Peshkin, A., Twomey, C.R., Bode, N.W., Kao, A.B., Katz, Y., Ioannou, C.C., Rosenthal, S.B., Torney, C.J., Wu, H., Levin, S.A. & Couzin, I.D. (2013) Visual sensory networks and effective information transfer in animal groups, Current Biology 23(17), R709-711. 2) Rosenthal, S.B., Twomey, C.R., Hartnett, A.T., Wu, H.S. & Couzin, I.D. (2015) Revealing the hidden networks of interaction in mobile animal groups allows prediction of complex behavioral contagion, PNAS 112(15), 4690-4695. 3) Berdahl, A., Torney, C.J., Ioannou, C.C., Faria, J. & Couzin, I.D. (2013) Emergent sensing of complex environments by mobile animal groups, Science 339(6119) 574-576. 4) Hein, A. M., Rosenthal, S.B., Hagstron, G.I., Berdahl, A., Torney, C.J. & Couzin, I.D. (2015) The evolution of distribued sensing and collective computation in animal populations, eLife, in press. 5) Couzin, I.D., Krause, J., Franks, N.R. & Levin, S.A. (2005) Effective leadership and decision making in animal groups on the move. Nature 433, 513-516. 6) Couzin, I.D., Ioannou, C.C., Demirel, G., Gross, T., Torney, C.J., Hartnett, A., Conradt, L., Levin, S.A. & Leonard, N.E. (2011) Uninformed individuals promote democratic consensus in animal groups. Science 334(6062) 1578-1580. 7) Hartnett, A.T., Schertzer, E., Levin, S.A. & Couzin, I.D. (2015) The role of heterogeneous preference and local nonlinearity in consensus decision-making, Physical Review Letters. 8) Strandburg-Peshkin, A., Farine, D.R., Couzin, I.D. & Crofoot, M.C. (2015) Shared decision-making drives collective movement in wild baboons. Science 348(6241), 1358-1361.

A visual pathway with wide-field properties is required for elementary motion-detection

Date:
23
Wednesday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Marion Silies
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: Visual motion cues are used by many animals to guide navigation through their en ...Visual motion cues are used by many animals to guide navigation through their environments. Long-standing theoretical models have made predictions about the computations that compare light signals across space and time to detect motion. Separate candidate ON and OFF pathway that can implement various algorithmic steps have been proposed in the Drosophila visual system based on connectomic and physiological approaches. However, proposed circuit elements are often not functionally required, suggesting redundant circuits at least. Using forward genetic approaches, we identified neurons of a third visual pathway in which the first order interneurons L3 provides a key input to direction-selective T5 neurons via the medulla neuron Tm9. While neurons of this pathway are behaviorally required for OFF motion detection, their physiological properties do not line up with predicted features of motion detection. Using in vivo 2 photon calcium imaging, we show that this pathway carries sustained responses to contrast changes and exhibits wide field properties that inform elementary motion detectors about wide regions of visual space. Given that these signals are essential for elementary motion-detection, we are currently investigating the full microcircuit architecture of this OFF pathway, as well as its molecular and physiological specializations. Our goal is to understand the circuits and computations that implement behavioral responses to visual motion.

Revealing the secrets of giant viruses

Date:
23
Wednesday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00-13:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Yael Fridmann Sirkis
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities
Abstract: The recent discovery of giant DNA viruses and the understanding that such viruse ...The recent discovery of giant DNA viruses and the understanding that such viruses are diverse and abundant blurred the difference between viruses and cells. Our laboratory studies two members of the constantly growing family of giant viruses. One of them is the Mimivirus with its famous Stargate. The cytoplasmic replication cycle of Mimivirus is carried out in specific intracellular compartments called viral factories, has been studied extensively in our laboratory. We use advanced microscopic methods such as high-resolution electron and light microscopy, along with biochemical approaches. Some of our open questions focus on the viral assembly process, infection cycle, and the generation and composition of the complex and dynamic structures of the viral factories that some claim may be the origin of the nucleus in eukaryotes.

How to resolve the proton radius puzzle?

Date:
21
Monday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 16:30-17:30
Lecturer: Gil Paz
Organizer: Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Abstract: In 2010 the first measurement of the proton charge radius from spectroscopy of ...In 2010 the first measurement of the proton charge radius from spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen was found to be five standard deviations away from the regular hydrogen value. More than five years later, this "proton radius puzzle" is still unresolved. The proton radius puzzle has led to a reevaluation of the extraction of proton radii from scattering and spectroscopy data. I will describe some of these developments and their implications to neutrino-nucleus scattering. One of the most promising avenues to test the muonic hydrogen result is a new muon-proton scattering experiment called MUSE. I will describe how effective field theory methods will allow us to connect muonic hydrogen spectroscopy to muon-proton scattering in a model-independent way.

Submillimeter Astronomy – Molecules and Dust in the Universe

Date:
10
Thursday
December
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Karl Menten
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: In our Universe, new stars are forming since at least 13 billion years – and s ...In our Universe, new stars are forming since at least 13 billion years – and still today – out of dense clouds of interstellar gas and dust. At optical wavelengths, dust absorption prohibits observations of the youngest stars and the process of their formation. In contrast, at 1000-10000 times longer wavelengths, the dust is shining brightly as are molecules from a plethora of different species, some of them quite complex. Since molecules have there rotational spec-tra at millimeter or shorter wavelengths, the submillimeter wavelength (or terahertz frequen-cy) regime offers optimal opportunities for studies of the cradles of stars and many other in-teresting astronomical environments. An inherently interdisciplinary enterprise, frontier sub-millimeter astronomy crucially depends on laboratory spectroscopy and experimentation, state of the art detector development and modern telescope technology working on the driest sites on Earth, in the stratosphere or in space. An overview of this exciting field will be given, illustrated with newest results.

Dept. Seminar: Signaling in changing environments uncovers Achilles’ heel of the MAPK circuitry – applying Microfluidics and optogenetics approaches to explore cell regulation

Date:
08
Tuesday
December
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Raoul and Graziella de Picciotto Building for Scientific and Technical Support
Lecturer: Dr. Amir Mitchell
Organizer: Department of Biological Regulation

Genomics of drug sensitivty in leukemia and lymphoma

Date:
25
Wednesday
November
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:30
Title: Special Guest Seminar
Location: Wolfson Building for Biological Research
Lecturer: Prof. Dr. med. Thorsten Zenz
Organizer: Department of Molecular Cell Biology

(Computational) genomics of post-transcriptional regulation: from RNA-binding proteins to translation

Date:
24
Tuesday
November
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Uwe Ohler
Organizer: Department of Immunology

Chemical Physics Department Seminar

Date:
22
Sunday
November
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Title: Light-matter strong coupling and potential for chemistry and biology
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Dr Atef Shalabney
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: When matter is placed in the confined field of electromagnetic radiation, it can ...When matter is placed in the confined field of electromagnetic radiation, it can lead to modified and even new properties. This is of great interest from both the fundamental point of view as well as for many radiation engineering applications. For instance, the field confinement can lead to effects such as extraordinary optical transmission, enhanced absorption and emission of light, high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging. Under certain conditions, the light-matter interaction can become so strong that it enters the so-called strong coupling regime where new hybrid light-matter states are formed, offering a vast potential for chemistry and biology that has hardly been explored. In this talk, an introduction to strong coupling of optically-active substances with confined optical modes will be presented. Strong coupling of molecular vibrational transitions in the infra-red region will be particularly elaborated with new prospects to modify molecular and structural processes. The hybridization of molecular vibrational transitions by the confined electromagnetic field of an optical cavity, leading to the formation of vibro-polariton states, should have direct consequences on the properties of the material. Probing nonlinear properties of the coupled system to understand the character of the hybrid states will be addressed. In addition, new directions for exploiting strong light-matter interactions for (bio) molecular spectroscopy and other practical applications will be discussed.

Super resolution Conical Diffraction Microscopy - BioAxial

Date:
18
Wednesday
November
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:00
Location: Ullmann Building of Life Sciences
Lecturer: Gabriel Y.SIRAT and Louis-P.BRAITBART
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities
Abstract: Super-resolution Conical Diffraction Microscopy (CoDiM) packaged in an easy-to-u ...Super-resolution Conical Diffraction Microscopy (CoDiM) packaged in an easy-to-use add-on accessory to confocal microscopes unveils molecular mechanisms in live samples below 90nm resolution. Gabriel Y. SIRAT and Louis-P. BRAITBART Bioaxial, 24 rue du Faubourg Saint-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France gabriel.sirat@bioaxial.com; philippe.braitbart@bioaxial.com Recent progress in sub-diffraction light microscopy has allowed researchers to look into cells with an unrivalled level of detail and specificity. Still current advanced imaging techniques too often remain plagued by overwhelming complexity, cost and high photo-toxicity which dramatically restrict their range of application and scientific output. Here we present a super-resolution technique based on cutting-edge conical diffraction optics and advanced emitter localization opening up a range of life science applications yet unexplored by high-performance super-resolution imaging. BioAxial’s user-friendly super-resolution CODIM100 add-on module has been specifically designed to perform live cell imaging at resolutions exceeding 90 nm. Our system does not require any specific sample preparation, is compatible with all standard immunostaining and fluorescent proteins such as GFP, produces very limited phototoxicity and bleaching and integrates seamlessly in regular confocal microscopy workflows. Minimization of photo damage ensures the biological fidelity of the experimental paradigm and the biological relevance of functional measurements. In this presentation we will discuss the underlying principle of the BioAxial optical technology, image formation and analysis processes with attendees. We will also show the latest applications that BioAxial has developed together with its different academic partners. For more information on BioAxial, Conical Diffraction Microscopy and the CODIM100, please visit www.bioaxial.com

Physical computation in animal collectives

Date:
12
Thursday
November
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Iain D. Couzin
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Understanding how social influence shapes biological processes is a central chal ...Understanding how social influence shapes biological processes is a central challenge in con-temporary science, essential for achieving progress in a variety of fields ranging from the or-ganization and evolution of coordinated collective action among cells, or animals, to the dy-namics of information exchange in human societies. Using an integrated experimental and theoretical approach I will address how, and why, animals exhibit highly-coordinated collective behavior. I will demonstrate new imaging technology that allows us to reconstruct (automatcally) the dynamic, time-varying networks that correspond to the visual cues employed by organisms when making movement decisions [1]. Sensory networks are shown to provide a much more accurate representation of how social influence propagates in groups, and their analysis allows us to identify, for any instant in time, the most socially-influential individuals within groups, and to predict the magnitude of complex behavioral cascades before they actually occur [2]. I will also investigate the coupling between spatial and information dynamics in groups and reveal that emergent problem solving is the predominant mechanism by which mobile groups sense, and respond to complex environmental gradients [3]. Evolutionary modeling demonstrates such ‘physical computation’ readily evolves within populations of selfish organisms, and allowing individuals to compute collectively the spatial distribution of rsources and to allocate themselves effectively among distinct, and distant, resource patches, Without requiring information about the number, location or size of patches [4]. Finally I will reveal the critical role uninformed, or unbiased, individuals play in effecting fast and democratic consensus decision-making in collectives [5-7], and will test these predictions with experiments involving schooling fish [6] and wild baboons [8].

Proper astronomical image processing - Solving the problems of image coaddition and image subtraction

Date:
28
Wednesday
October
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:15
Location: Dannie N. Heineman Laboratory
Lecturer: Barak Zackay
Organizer: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics
Abstract: While co-addition and subtraction of astronomical images stand at the heart of o ...While co-addition and subtraction of astronomical images stand at the heart of observational astronomy, the existing solutions for them lack rigorous argumentation, are not achieving maximal sensitivity and are often slow. Moreover, there is no widespread agreement on how they should be done, and often different methods are used for different scientific applications. I am going to present rigorous solutions to these problems, deriving them from the most basic statistical principles. These solutions are proved optimal, under well defined and practically acceptable assumptions, and in many cases improve substantially the performance of the most basic operations in astronomy. For coaddition, we present a coadd image that under the assumption of spatially uniform noise is: a) sufficient for any further statistical decision or measurement on the entire data set. b) improves both survey speed (by 5-20%) and effective spatial resolution of astronomical surveys c) improves substantially imaging through turbulence applications such as lucky imaging and speckle interferometry d) much faster than many of the currently used coaddition solutions. For subtraction, we present a subtraction image that is: a) Free of subtraction artifacts, hopefully relieving the transient detection pipelines from machine learning algorithms and human scanning. b) optimal for transient detection under the assumption of spatially uniform noise. c) sufficient for any further statistical decision including the identification of cosmic rays and other image artifacts. d) orders of magnitude faster than existing subtraction methods. e) allows accurate statistical analysis of the resulting subtraction image, allowing exact knowledge of a transients significance. As you will see, the derivation of these methods requires only structured, basic and predictable statistical tools. Therefore the same could be easily done for many other problems in observational astronomy

Live cell organic chemistry for protein labeling and imaging

Date:
20
Tuesday
October
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Prof. Itaru Hamachi, Kyoto Univ., Japan
Organizer: Department of Organic Chemistry

Molecules, glass & light

Date:
17
Thursday
September
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:15-14:15
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Alina Karabchevsky
Organizer: Department of Physics of Complex Systems
Details: Falafel at 12:50
Abstract: In this seminar, I will introduce the fundamentals of guided optics. A brief ove ...In this seminar, I will introduce the fundamentals of guided optics. A brief overview will be given over design, fabrication and characterization of integrated optical components and microfluidic channels. I will focus on the conceptual importance of the integrated optics and surface modification for chemo- and bio-applications. The potential of disorder-enhanced photonics in vibrational spectroscopy on waveguides will be discussed and new directions will be proposed. Vibrational spectroscopy relies on absorption of electromagnetic radiation by molecular vibrations. It is a powerful tool for drawing information on molecular structure and dynamics. In the first part of the talk I will present an intriguing physical effect of disorder-enhanced absorption of light by molecular overtones of amines in a: 1) silicate channel waveguide and 2) microtapered fiber with adsorbed gold nanoparticles. Due to the guides’ surface modification, aromatic rings tend to stack together, and N-H bonds in amines form hydrogen bonds with each other. This 8 nm thick multilayer structure of lamellar liquid crystal shape leads to the switch from ballistic to diffusive propagation of light which results in the enhanced absorption. I will also address a dynamics of absorption as a function of time of adsorption of the organic molecules on waveguide. These phenomena are expected to find application in organic solution based optical sensors for detection of explosive materials and diagnostics of psychoactive stimulants based on amines. In the second part of the talk, I will present a theoretical study of composite plasmonic waveguide structures for design of integrated optical components and Purcell enhanced chemiluminescence in a microfluidic channel.

Single cell genomics

Date:
16
Wednesday
September
2015
-
18
Friday
September
2015
Conference
Time: 00:00

Achieving mechanistic understanding in membrane protein systems using Cryo-electron microscopy: case studies of the HIV-1 core formation and human P-glycoprotein

Date:
08
Tuesday
September
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Dr. Gabriel A. Frank
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

Rapid Advances in Pediatric Body MRI

Date:
08
Tuesday
September
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:00
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Prof. Michael Lustig
Organizer: Department of Biological Regulation

G-INCPM Special Seminar - Dr. Michael Angelo, MD, Instructor, Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine - High dimensional, immunohistochemical imaging in clinical tissue biopsies using multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI)

Date:
02
Wednesday
September
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00-12:30
Location: Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine
Lecturer: Dr. Michael Angelo, MD
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is a novel approach to immunohistochemistry ...Multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) is a novel approach to immunohistochemistry (IHC) that uses secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and antibodies labeled with elemental mass tags to visualize dozens of proteins simultaneously in a single tissue section. MIBI is compatible with standard formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens, the most common sample type in clinical repositories worldwide, and can achieve single molecule sensitivity across a five log dynamic range at resolutions equivalent to brightfield microscopy. In recent work, MIBI was validated for imaging breast tumor tissue sections stained with clinically relevant metal-conjugated antibodies via side-by-side comparison with an FDA-approved quantitative image analysis platform. Since that time, my lab has validated over sixty antibodies and has constructed a 45-plex MIBI panel for characterizing phenotypic and epigenetic features of epithelial, stromal, and infiltrating immune cells in clinical breast tumor biopsies. Analogous approaches with metal conjugated oligonucleotides have also been used for multiplexed DNA and RNA ISH. Finally, to permit broader use of this method, we have designed and constructed novel instrumentation optimized for MIBI that is capable of super resolution imaging and one hundred fold faster sample throughput. Taken together, these tools are being used by lab to comprehensively enumerate immune cell populations in normal and neoplastic solid tissues, to develop clinical classifiers for predicting disease progression in pre-invasive cancer lesions, and to discover epigenetic drivers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

Cryo-electron microscopy for in situ structural biology

Date:
01
Tuesday
September
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Dr. Tanmay Bharat
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

Development of cardiac CEST MRI as a powerful in vivo tool for cell tracking, metabolic imaging, and clinical fibrosis imaging

Date:
31
Monday
August
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Moriel Vandsburger, PhD
Organizer: Life Sciences

Exploring neuro-glio-vascular interactions through in vivo imaging of the mouse brain

Date:
28
Tuesday
July
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Jaime Grutzendler, MD
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: I will discuss several lines of research in our lab utilizing high resolution in ...I will discuss several lines of research in our lab utilizing high resolution in vivo and fixed tissue imaging to explore physiological and pathological mechanisms in the brain. Specifically we will discuss recent observations regarding mechanisms of neurovascular coupling and the role of smooth muscle cells versus pericytes in vasomotor responses after neural stimulation. We will also discuss findings related to a novel mechanism of microvascular recanalization that we termed angiophagy that could have potential important roles in stroke pathogenesis. Finally we will present a new method that we developed for high resolution label-free in vivo imaging of individual cortical myelinated axons that is allowing studies of myelin development and pathology.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
16
Thursday
July
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Changing MR Contrast with RF Irradiation: CEST and Myelin Imaging
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof Robert Lenkinski
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Schrödinger’s Rainbow: The Renaissance in Quantum Optical Interferometry Slides

Date:
25
Thursday
June
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Jonathan Dowling
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Over the past 20 years bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaiss ...Over the past 20 years bright sources of entangled photons have led to a renaissance in quan-tum optical interferometry. These photon sources have been used to test the foundations of quantum mechanics and implement some of the spooky ideas associated with quantum en-tanglement such as quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, quantum lithography, quantum computing logic gates, and sub-shot-noise optical interferometers. I will discuss some of these advances and the unification of optical quantum imaging, metrology, and in-formation processing.

G-INCPM-Special Seminar - Dr. Shmulik Motola, Lab Manager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), BioMicro Center Genomics Core, The MIT BioMicro Center - making the genomics work for you

Date:
17
Wednesday
June
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Location: Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine
Lecturer: Dr. Shmulik Motola
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: The MIT BioMicro Center is an integrated genomics facility that provides both ex ...The MIT BioMicro Center is an integrated genomics facility that provides both expertise and equipment for systems biology. We offer researchers comprehensive genomics services, from experimental design to data analysis. Samples represent broad basic and translational research projects done at MIT. During the talk, I will discuss the challenges we face applying next generation sequencing techniques to research at MIT and how we overcome them.

G-INCPM-Special Seminar - Prof. Young-Tae Chang, Laboratory Bioimaging Probe Development, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium - Universal Fluorescent Probe Platform for Almost Everything

Date:
15
Monday
June
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Nancy and Stephen Grand Israel National Center for Personalized Medicine
Lecturer: Prof. Young-Tae Chang
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: The conventional bioprobe design has been carried out by so-called hypothesis-dr ...The conventional bioprobe design has been carried out by so-called hypothesis-driven approach. The basic assumption of hypothesis-driven approach is that the scientist “knows the target” in advance, and then design the recognition motif for it. An alternative approach is diversity-driven approach, in which a broad range of fluorescence molecules in a library format are constructed by combinatorial chemistry, as a tool box for unbiased screening. Among several diversity sources, “Diversity Oriented Fluorescence Library Approach (DOFLA)” using fluorophore core with diverse recognition motives around has been the most fruitful in novel bioprobe generations. Using DOFLA, various colorful sensors for many different analytes and bioimaing probes from stem cells to neuron cells will be demonstrated. Whole body animal imaging will also be presented using NIR range of probes.

Genomics and Evolution of Host-Microbiome Interaction

Date:
15
Monday
June
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00
Location: Max and Lillian Candiotty Building
Lecturer: Dr. Ran Blekhman
Organizer: Department of Biological Regulation

Recent advances in Imaging Flow Cytometry – The 3rd Israeli ImagestreamX user meeting

Date:
02
Tuesday
June
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:00-12:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer:
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities
Details: Schedule: 9:00-9:15 – Gathering and refreshments 9:15-9:45 – “Overview of the ISX projects in the Center for Human Immunology" – Dr. Milena Hasan, Pasteur Institute, France. 9:45-10:05 – “Application of ISX in the study of autophagy” – Alik Demishtein, Weizmann Institute of Science. 10:05-10:35 – “Statistical principles of Imaging Flow cytometry” – Dr. Ron Rotkopf, Weizmann Institute of Science 10:35-10:50- Coffee break 10:50-11:10 - “Quantification and characterization of viral infection cycle using imaging flow cytometry” Liran Ben Yaakov, Weizmann Institute of Science. 11:10-11:30 - “Cerebral nitric oxide represses choroid plexus NFκB-dependent gateway activity for leukocyte trafficking” - Alex Kertser, Weizmann Institute of Science. 11:30-11:50 –“Anionic nano-carriers for effective siRNA delivery” - Dr. Efrat Forti, Ben-Gurion University. 11:50-12:00 – Questions and Summary
Abstract: Imaging Flow Cytometry combines speed, sensitivity, and phenotyping abilities fo ...Imaging Flow Cytometry combines speed, sensitivity, and phenotyping abilities found in flow cytometry with the detailed imagery and functional insight of microscopy, for an extensive range of novel applications. It allows quantitating cellular morphology and the intensity and location of fluorescent probes on, in, or between cells, even in rare sub-populations and highly heterogeneous samples. The wide range of applications used include studying intracellular localization, shape changes and morphology, co-localization, nuclear translocation, cell signaling, T cell – APC interactions, DNA damage and repair, cell death and apoptosis, phagocytosis and internalization, FISH, vesicle trafficking, and many others.

Recent advances in Imaging Flow Cytometry

Date:
02
Tuesday
June
2015
Conference
Time: 00:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research

High- and Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy

Date:
26
Tuesday
May
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Prof. Joerg Enderlein
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

Vibrational Spectroscopy in the Electron Microscope with Nanometer Spatial Resolution

Date:
20
Wednesday
May
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Prof. Peter Rez
Organizer: Department of Materials and Interfaces
Details: The latest scanning transmission electron microscopes (Nion UltraSTEM) not only have aberration correction, they are also equipped with a monochromator capable of recording spectra with 10 meV energy. Traditionally spectroscopy in the electron microscope was limited to UV and X-ray energies. We are now in a position to explore excitations in the visible and IR regions at nanometer spatial resolution. I shall show some of the results on colour centers in fluorite, and what is likely to be the signature of an NV center in diamond. Radiation damage has been a serious problem in electron microscopy of biological specimens. Low energy vibrational mode excitations can be delocalized over distances of up to 100 nm. Although the delocalization limits spatial resolution, it means that we can record spectra with beams positioned outside the specimen (aloof mode). I shall show results from a collaboration with Weizmann# where we demonstrate excitation of vibrational modes in guanine with no beam induced damage since in aloof mode we don’t excite transitions leading to ionization. # Hagai Cohen, Dvir Gur, Sharon Wolf

Towards Imaging the Event Horizon in the Galactic Center

Date:
14
Thursday
May
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Heino Falcke
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Gravity is successfully described by Einstein’s theory of general relativi ...Gravity is successfully described by Einstein’s theory of general relativity, governing the structure of our entire universe. Yet gravity remains the least understood of all forces in nature, e.g., resisting unification with quantum physics. One of the most fundamental pre-dictions of general relativity are black holes. Their defining feature is the event horizon, the surface that even light cannot escape and where time and space exchange their nature. How-ever, while there are many convincing black hole candidates in the universe, there is no exper-imental proof for the existence of an event horizon yet. So, does general relativity really hold in its most extreme limit? Do BHs exist or are alternatives needed? The best place to test this is in the center of our own Milky Way. Here a compact radio source with a mass of 4 Million times the mass of the sun, marks the central point of our Galaxy, providing by the far the best evidence for the existence of black holes. Very long baseline radio observations are now prob-ing the smallest scales of this source, making it possible to image the shadow of the event horizon of a black hole for the very first time. Moreover, with the help of advanced numerical general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations emission and appearance of the source can be successfully modeled almost from first principles. Hence, the Galactic center provides today a unique laboratory for astrophysics and general relativity.

“Organic Chain Assemblies of Alkylsilanes on Silica: Multiple Transmission and Reflection FTIR spectroscopy Studies

Date:
13
Wednesday
May
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Dr. Vikrant Naik
Organizer: Department of Materials and Interfaces
Details: Alkylsilanes (silanes) have long been used for tailoring a wide variety of surfaces including silicates, aluminates, and titanates and are used on an industrial scale for a wide variety of applications, such as coupling agents for glasses and polymers, as crosslinking and dispersing agents, and for hydrophobization.1 Although the exact mechanism for the formation of the surface coating is still not completely understood, it has classically been portrayed that the surface reaction of silanes takes place in three steps viz. hydrolysis, condensation on the surface, followed by the formation of surface-O-Si bond. The classical reaction mechanism leaves a number of open questions. Primarily, it does not deal with the degree of polymerization of the Si-O-Si linkages and as such it is not known whether the linkages exist as groups of a fixed number of silanes or the entire surface consists of a continuous crosslinked structure. Another peculiar problem that the current model faces is the volume constraints of alkyl-chains.2 For a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed by octadecylsilane, considering a typical Si-O bond length of 1.8 Å and Si-O-Si angle of 105°, the maximum available space for the alkyl chain has a diameter of 2.9 Å much smaller than the cross sectional diameter of a typical all-trans alkylchain (4.9 Å).3 None of the current models can account for the fact that the voluminous alkylchains are squeezed into the Si-O-Si distance. We have used Multiple transmission-reflection (MTR)4 IR spectroscopy - a recently developed infrared spectroscopy sampling method for surfaces to understand the structure of silane SAMs on a silica surface. Thanks to the excellent signal:noise ratio of data obtained by MTR, spectra of silane monolayers on a silica substrate could be readily obtained. This data is particularly important for gaining insights into the nature of the silica-silane interaction. The results support a model in which the inherent strain caused by the mismatch of alkyl-chain van der Waals radius and Si-O-Si bond distance is relieved in silane monolayers by the formation of structures that depend on the nature of leaving groups resembling closely packed umbrellas for Octadecyltrichlorosilane and fallen trees for octadecyltrialkoxysilanes.

Atomic collapse in graphene

Date:
07
Thursday
May
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Leonid Levitov
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Since the discovery that electrons in graphene behave as massless Dirac fermions ...Since the discovery that electrons in graphene behave as massless Dirac fermions, the single-atom-thick material has become a fertile playground for testing exotic predictions of quantum electrodynamics, such as Klein tunneling and the fractional quantum Hall effect. Now add to that list atomic collapse, the spontaneous formation of electrons and positrons in the electrostatic field of a superheavy atomic nucleus. The atomic collapse was predicted to manifest itself in quasistationary states which have complex-valued energies and which decay rapidly. However, the atoms created artificially in laboratory have nuclear charge only up to Z = 118, which falls short of the predicted threshold for collapse. Interest in this problem has been revived with the advent of graphene, where because of a large fine structure constant the collapse is expected for Z of order unity. In this talk we will discuss the symmetry aspects of atomic collapse, in particular the anomalous breaking of scale invariance. We will also describe recent experiments that use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to probe atomic collapse near STM-controled artificial compound nuclei.

Cracking Mesoscopic Coding Principles in the Human Brain with Ultra-High Field Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Date:
03
Sunday
May
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-17:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Rainer Goebel
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Series of talks by 3 speakers Host: Prof. Noam Sobel, Dept of Neurobiology

Towards mapping the Human Brain: imaging function and connectivity from cortical columns to whole brain

Date:
03
Sunday
May
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-17:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Kamil Ugurbil
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Series of talks by 3 speakers Host: Prof. Noam Sobel, Dept of Neurobiology

Chemical Physics Lunch Club Seminar

Date:
03
Sunday
May
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Title: Molecular Collisions coming into Focus
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Sebastiaan Y.T. van de Meerakker
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: The study of molecular collisions with the highest possible detail has been an i ...The study of molecular collisions with the highest possible detail has been an important research theme in physical chemistry for decades. Over the last years we have developed methods to get improved control over molecules in a molecular beam [1]. With the Stark decelerator, a part of a molecular beam can be selected to produce bunches of molecules with a computer-controlled velocity and with longitudinal temperatures as low as a few mK. The molecular packets that emerge from the decelerator have small spatial and angular spreads, and have almost perfect quantum state purity. These tamed molecular beams allow for crossed beam scattering experiments with unprecedented levels of precision and sensitivity [2,3]. I will discuss our most recent results on the combination of Stark deceleration and velocity map imaging. The narrow velocity spread of Stark-decelerated beams results in scattering images with an unprecedented sharpness and angular resolution. This has facilitated the observation of diffraction oscillations in the state-to-state differential cross sections for collisions of NO with rare gas atoms [4]. Observed features in the diffraction pattern result from subtle quantum interference effects, and appear extremely sensitive to the potential energy surfaces governing the scattering process [5]. [1] S.Y.T. van de Meerakker, H.L. Bethlem, G. Meijer, Nature Physics 4, 595 (2008). [2] J.J. Gilijamse, S. Hoekstra, S.Y.T. van de Meerakker, G.C. Groenenboom, G. Meijer, Science 313, 1617 (2006). [3] M. Kirste, X. Wang, H.C. Schewe, G. Meijer, K. Liu, A. van der Avoird, L.M.C. Janssen, K.B. Gubbels, G.C. Groenenboom, S.Y.T. van de Meerakker, Science 338, 1060 (2012). [4] A. von Zastrow, J. Onvlee, S.N. Vogels, G.C. Groenenboom, A. van der Avoird, S.Y.T. van de Meerakker, Nature Chemistry 6, 216 (2014). [5] S.N. Vogels, J. Onvlee, A. von Zastrow, G.C. Groenenboom, A. van der Avoird, S.Y.T. van de Meerakker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 263202 (2014).

Investigations of Implosions on the National Ignition Facility and discussion on the fusion yield from NIF

Date:
29
Wednesday
April
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:15
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: H. A. Scott, B. A. Hammel
Organizer: Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Details: 15:00 – Light refreshments
Abstract: Hydrodynamic instabilities are a primary impediment to the success of inertial c ...Hydrodynamic instabilities are a primary impediment to the success of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), as they can severely degrade capsule performance [1]. Even with perfectly smooth capsules, the fill tube and capsule support provide perturbations that seed instabilities. Consequently, understanding the evolution of perturbations and their effects on capsule performance is critical to the success of an ICF program. We discuss here the use of spectroscopic methods to diagnose the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities in imploding capsules. To understand capsule evolution and guide experimental design and interpretation, we use high-resolution HYDRA [2] simulations, postprocessed with Cretin [3], to simulate the spectra produced by capsules with specified initial perturbations. The spectral simulations cover a wide range of conditions, from the multi-keV hot spot to the cold dense pusher. For capsules with mid-Z dopants, the resulting X-ray spectrum can be analyzed to obtain information about the plasma conditions. An analysis of the dopant K-shell line emission has been used to estimate the mass of ablator material mixed into the hot spot [4]. Other spectral features can be used to provide information about the shell and further constrain the mixed mass. Other recent work has focused on using spectroscopy to quantitatively characterize the growth of perturbations. Capsules containing a small amount of argon in the gas produce sufficient emission before peak compression to provide radiographic information. The analysis of simulated spectra from capsules with machined perturbations demonstrates the possibility of extracting quantitative measures of perturbation growth. References [1] B.A. Hammel, et al, High Energy Density Physics, 6 (2010) 171. [2] M. Marinak, et al, Phys. Plasmas 8 (2001) 2275. [3] H.A. Scott, J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 71 (2001) 681. [4] S.P. Regan et al. Phys. Rev, Lett. 111, 045001 (2013).

Redistribution of conventional and non-conventional body fat depots across lifestyle strategies: preliminary results of the CENTRAL MRI randomized trial

Date:
19
Sunday
April
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00-16:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: prof. Iris Shai
Organizer: Life Sciences

Traction force microscopy: what cell-gel mechanical interactions can tell us

Date:
12
Sunday
April
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Prof. Daphne Weihs
Organizer: Department of Materials and Interfaces
Details: Traction force microscopy (TFM) is a method that has been utilized in the last decade to evaluate the forces applied by cells to underlying gels. Cells utilize traction forces to adhere, move, and apply force to their environment, as part of their normal function. Variation in forces between different cell types, following treatment, or following onset of disease and can reveal dynamic structural changes within the cell that may relate to changes in cell function. The mechanical interaction of cells with their environment depends on the cell type, its current activity, and the dimensionality and stiffness of the gel. Using 2-dimensional (2D), elastic polyacrylamide gels, with fluorescent particles embedded under their surface, or 3D collagen gels with dispersed particles, we are able to quantitatively evaluate forces applied by cells. In the current talk, I will explain the TFM method and approach in 2D and in 3D gel systems, providing detailed examples from three different cell types. I will provide examples on (1) invasive cancer cells (in 2D and 3D), showing differences between cancer and benign cells (2) changes in cell-gel interactions when undifferentiated stem cells grow into a 3D embryoid body; and (3) differences between pre-adipose cells and differentiated adipocytes. The experiments highlight quantitative similarities and differences relating to cell function and activity.

Mitochondrial membrane proteins in motion - in situ imaging by live cell superresolution microscopy

Date:
31
Tuesday
March
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Dr. Karin Busch
Organizer: Department of Molecular Genetics

Spotlight on Science: "Brain under the flashlight or how to develop a simple and effective method for in vivo imaging? "

Date:
25
Wednesday
March
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Vyacheslav (Slava) Kalchenko
Organizer: Department of Materials and Interfaces

A microscopic view of electronic nematicity in the pnictide superconductors

Date:
19
Thursday
March
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Abhay Pasupathy
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Iron-based pnictide superconductors display the phenomenon of electronic nem ...Iron-based pnictide superconductors display the phenomenon of electronic nematicity - the electronic transport displays an anisotropic behavior that breaks the rotational symmetry of the lattice. This nematic behavior is observed across many compounds and over a large part of the phase diagram of the material. What is this nematicity? Does it have any relationship to superconductivity in the material? In this talk I will attempt to answer these questions by providing a microscopic view of one of the pnictide compounds NaFeAs obtained using atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy.

A microscopic view of electronic nematicity in the pnictide superconductors

Date:
19
Thursday
March
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Abhay Pasupathy
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Iron-based pnictide superconductors display the phenomenon of electronic nem ...Iron-based pnictide superconductors display the phenomenon of electronic nematicity - the electronic transport displays an anisotropic behavior that breaks the rotational symmetry of the lattice. This nematic behavior is observed across many compounds and over a large part of the phase diagram of the material. What is this nematicity? Does it have any relationship to superconductivity in the material? In this talk I will attempt to answer these questions by providing a microscopic view of one of the pnictide compounds NaFeAs obtained using atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy.

Learning the 'metadata' of a cell, statistical methods for single cell genomics

Date:
18
Wednesday
March
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00-13:00
Title: Guest Seminar
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Rahul Satija
Organizer: Department of Immunology

K-shell radiation caused by laser accelerated electrons and heavy ions as an instrument for WDM diagnostic

Date:
18
Wednesday
March
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: O.N. Rosmej
Organizer: Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Details: 10:45 – Light refreshments
Abstract: The Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy Ion Research GSI in Darmstadt, Germany operates a ...The Helmholtzzentrum for Heavy Ion Research GSI in Darmstadt, Germany operates a worldwide unique large-scale accelerator facility for heavy ions. Plasma physics with intense heavy ion and laser beams is one of the important research pillows. The future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), one of the largest research projects worldwide, will provide an unprecedented variety of experimental possibilities for all research directions including High Energy Density Physics. Nowadays, before the FAIR start in 2020, the Petawatt High-Energy Laser System for Ion beam eXperiments – “PHELIX” with nanosecond and femtosecond frontends allows a variety of FAIR relevant experiments directed on creation and investigation of Warm Dense Matter. In the talk, diagnostic methods using high resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the target K-shell radiation caused by laser accelerated electrons and heavy ions will be discussed.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
05
Thursday
March
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:00
Title: How can ultra-high magnetic fields help in preclinical functional MRI studies?
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Luisa Ciobanu
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: In fMRI studies, contrast-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution can be improved ...In fMRI studies, contrast-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution can be improved by using ultra-high magnetic fields. Traditionally, fMRI experiments are performed using the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) technique based on echo planar imaging (EPI) acquisition strategies. When using EPI, certain unwanted effects such as image blurring, distortions and signal voids enhance as the magnetic field strength increases. In the first part of my talk I will present the use of a different acquisition scheme, spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN), which has the potential to improve image quality, offering an attractive alternative to EPI for UHF fMRI. In the second part of my presentation I will focus on two other approaches to imaging brain function: Diffusion fMRI (DfMRI) and Manganese Enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Specifically, I will present studies which highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each of these techniques with respect to BOLD.

"Nucleosome dynamics studied by computer simulation and single molecule spectroscopy"

Date:
03
Tuesday
March
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00
Location: Helen and Milton A. Kimmelman Building
Lecturer: Prof. Jorg Langowski
Organizer: Department of Structural Biology

Imaging the flow of visual information in behaving mice

Date:
26
Thursday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Mark Andermann
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: In this talk, I will first describe our efforts to understand transformations ac ...In this talk, I will first describe our efforts to understand transformations across visual cortical areas and layers using chronic calcium imaging of cell bodies and axons in awake, behaving mice. I will then describe our preliminary efforts at linking hunger-dependent modulation of visual processing in amygdala and cortex with hypothalamic drivers of food seeking.

Exploring the brain's navigation system with high-resolution imaging and virtual reality

Date:
26
Thursday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Daniel Dombeck
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: I will discuss techniques that allow us to perform cellular and subcellular reso ...I will discuss techniques that allow us to perform cellular and subcellular resolution imaging of neuronal activity in mice navigating in virtual reality environments and recent results from imaging place cells and grid cells. I will describe activity patterns that we have observed in hippocampal place cell dendrites and the implications for how associative Hebbian learning may take place during behavior. I will also describe the functional micro-organization of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex and what the organization might tell us about the circuits that generate grid cell firing patterns.

Connectomes on Demand?

Date:
24
Tuesday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Nir Shavit
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Abstract: Genomic sequencing has become a standard research tool in biology, going within ...Genomic sequencing has become a standard research tool in biology, going within 20 years from a high-risk global project into clinical use. Connectomics, the generation (at this point through electron microscopy), of a connectivity graph for a volume of neural tissue, is still in its infancy. This talk will survey the road ahead, the various technical and computational problems we face, and the joint MIT/Harvard effort to devise an automated pipeline that will allow researchers to have connectomes generated on demand.

2014 Chemistry Nobel Prize Laureate "Single Molecules, Super-Resolution Microscopy, and Molecular Dynamics in Solution"

Date:
19
Thursday
February
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:00-12:30
Location: Michael and Anna Wix Auditorium
Lecturer: Prof. W. E. (William E.) Moerner
Organizer: Faculty of Chemistry

Balmer-dominated shocks around supernova remnants SN1006 and Tycho

Date:
18
Wednesday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:15
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Physics Building
Lecturer: Sladjana Knezevic
Organizer: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics
Abstract: I will present high-resolution spectrophotometric imaging of Balmer-dominated sh ...I will present high-resolution spectrophotometric imaging of Balmer-dominated shocks (BDSs) around two historical supernova remnants SN1006 and Tycho. BDSs are characterized by strong hydrogen emission lines with a narrow (~10 km/s) and a broad (~ 1000 km/s) component. Using integral-field spectroscopy and Fabry-Perot interferometry we spatially resolve the shocks and minimize the shock geometry contribution to Halpha-line profiles. In the case of SN1006, we find significant variations in broad line widths and broad-to-narrow line intensity ratios across the shock that point towards the presence of suprathermal protons – seeds of high-energy cosmic ray protons. In Tycho, our observations indicate an additional intermediate-width (~ 100 km/s) component, implying the presence of a fast-neutral precursor. Moreover, in the latter case the narrow component is typically broader than the maximally expected 20 km/s and is sometimes even double-peaked, which might be due to a cosmic ray precursor and/or the shock geometry. Application of state-of-the-art shock models that include non-thermal physics to the presented data are expected to provide important constraints on the shocks and hadronic cosmic ray properties.

"Vibrational Stark Spectroscopy Connects Electrostatics to Catalytic Rates at Enzyme Active Sites"

Date:
16
Monday
February
2015
Colloquium
Time: 11:00-12:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Steven G. Boxer
Organizer: Faculty of Chemistry

Human Papillomavirus and Cancer, Viral Genomics, Evolution and Pathogenesis in Humans

Date:
10
Tuesday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 15:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Robert D. Burk
Organizer: Department of Molecular Genetics
Details: Professor and Vice Chair for Translational Research Department of Pediatrics (Division of Genetics) Professor, Departments of Microbiology & Immunology; Epidemiology & Population Health; and, Obstetrics, Gynecology & Women's Health Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY

Machine learning: an essential tool for bioimage analysis

Date:
08
Sunday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00
Location: Arthur and Rochelle Belfer Building for Biomedical Research
Lecturer: Prof. Fred Hamprecht
Organizer: Life Sciences
Abstract: Machine learning: an essential tool for bioimage analysis Fred Hamprecht T ...Machine learning: an essential tool for bioimage analysis Fred Hamprecht The enormous throughput of modern imaging systems calls for automated quantitative analysis. Machine learning allows the user to provide a training set of examples of desired input-output pairs, rather than tweak multiple obscure parameters. As such, machine learning can be a powerful user-friendly paradigm for the analysis of massive biological imagery. In this talk, I will show how machine learning has been packaged in the open source “ilastik” program. It is used for automated analysis, or as building block of more specialized pipelines, in fields ranging from cell and systems biology to developmental biology and the neurosciences. In particular, I will show how interactive machine learning can be used to conveniently train pixel or object level classifiers. I will also demonstrate a workflow for the tracking of multiple divisible objects, and indicate how we are about to make it “trainable”. ilastik works on monochrome or multichannel images with two or three spatial dimensions plus time. The foregoing is a teaser for a hands-on ilastik workshop in the morning of Thursday, February 19th, when users are invited to bring and experiment with their own data. Finally, I will give some intuition for the underlying machinery, and talk about ongoing work in structured learning for tracking and segmentation. The talk is guaranteed to be free of maths and code samples. ilastik is open source and can be downloaded from http://ilastik.org. It is joint work with Stuart Berg, Kemal Eren, Burcin Erocal, Luca Fiaschi, Carsten Haubold, Bernhard Kausler, Ullrich Koethe, Anna Kreshuk, Thorben Kroeger, Martin Schiegg, Christoph Sommer, Christoph Straehle, Buote Xu.

Neural Basis of Motion Opponency in the Fly

Date:
02
Monday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 13:00
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Alexander Borst
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Prof. Alexander Borst is visiting as a Special Guest of "Students-Invited Lecture Series in Brain Sciences" and will give 2 seminars: Feb 1 & 2, 2015.
Abstract: Alexander Borst aims at understanding the foundations of information processing ...Alexander Borst aims at understanding the foundations of information processing at the level of small neural circuits, focusing on the visual course control system in Drosophila. Borst’s lab uses a comprehensive approach , combining electron microscopy-aided anatomical reconstructions of the circuit, physiological characterization by both imaging and whole cell patch recordings, genetic circuit manipulation in behaving flies, computational modeling and last but not least, engineering of fly-inspired robots that implement the theoretical principles and test their functionality. Borst’s outstanding research has yielded a very precise and detailed description of the circuit at the single cell resolution as well as a thorough understanding of the computations it performs. Several of his major scientific contributions include the discovery that the direction of visually perceived motion is calculated following the Reichardt Model (Single & Borst, Science 1998), the separation of visual information in the fly brain into ON- and OFF-channels, similar to bipolar cells in the retina of vertebrate eyes (Jösch, Schnell, Raghu, Reiff & Borst, Nature 2010) and the existence of four types of neurons in each channel, tuned to one of the four cardinal directions (right, left, up, down) that project into four separate neuronal layers based on their preferred direction (Maisak et al, Nature 2013). https://www.neuro.mpg.de/borst

In Search of the Holy Grail of Fly Motion Vision

Date:
01
Sunday
February
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Prof. Alexander Borst
Organizer: Department of Neurobiology
Details: Prof. Alexander Borst is visiting as a Special Guest of "Students-Invited Lecture Series in Brain Sciences" and will give 2 seminars on Feb 1 & 2, 2015.
Abstract: Alexander Borst aims at understanding the foundations of information processing ...Alexander Borst aims at understanding the foundations of information processing at the level of small neural circuits, focusing on the visual course control system in Drosophila. Borst’s lab uses a comprehensive approach , combining electron microscopy-aided anatomical reconstructions of the circuit, physiological characterization by both imaging and whole cell patch recordings, genetic circuit manipulation in behaving flies, computational modeling and last but not least, engineering of fly-inspired robots that implement the theoretical principles and test their functionality. Borst’s outstanding research has yielded a very precise and detailed description of the circuit at the single cell resolution as well as a thorough understanding of the computations it performs. Several of his major scientific contributions include the discovery that the direction of visually perceived motion is calculated following the Reichardt Model (Single & Borst, Science 1998), the separation of visual information in the fly brain into ON- and OFF-channels, similar to bipolar cells in the retina of vertebrate eyes (Jösch, Schnell, Raghu, Reiff & Borst, Nature 2010) and the existence of four types of neurons in each channel, tuned to one of the four cardinal directions (right, left, up, down) that project into four separate neuronal layers based on their preferred direction (Maisak et al, Nature 2013). https://www.neuro.mpg.de/borst

Vision and Robotics Seminar

Date:
29
Thursday
January
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:15-01:15
Title: New ways to look at the sky
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Avishay Gal-Yam and Barak Zackay
Abstract: We present a general review of astronomical observation, with emphasis on the wa ...We present a general review of astronomical observation, with emphasis on the ways it differs from conventional imaging or photography. We then describe emerging trends in this area driven mainly by advances in detector technology and computing power. Having set a broad context, we then describe the new multiplexed imaging technique we have developed. This method uses the sparseness of typical astronomical data in order to image large areas of target sky using a physically small detector.

Diagnostics of laser induced plasma by optical emission spectroscopy

Date:
28
Wednesday
January
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Marko Cvejic
Organizer: Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Details: 14:15 - Coffee, tea and more
Abstract: The procedure for diagnostics of laser induced plasma (LIP) by optical emission ...The procedure for diagnostics of laser induced plasma (LIP) by optical emission spectroscopy technique is described. LIP was generated by focusing Nd:YAG laser radiation (1.064 nm, 50 mJ, 15 ns pulse duration) on the surface of pellet containing among other elements lithium. Details of the experimental setup and experimental data processing are presented. High speed plasma photography was used to study plasma evolution and decay. From those images optimum time for plasma diagnostics is located. The electron number density, Ne, is determined by fitting profiles of Li I lines while electron temperature, Te, was determined from relative intensities of Li I lines using Boltzmann plot (BP) technique. All spectral line recordings were tested for the presence of self-absorption and then if optically thin, Abel inverted and used for plasma diagnostic purposes.

Special Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
27
Tuesday
January
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00
Title: Probing Molecular Dances in the Cell Membrane by NMR Spectroscopy
Location: Perlman Chemical Sciences Building
Lecturer: Ayyalusamy Ramamoorthy
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: Membrane proteins are an exciting class of biomacromolecules and play important ...Membrane proteins are an exciting class of biomacromolecules and play important roles in a variety of biological processes that are directly linked to major diseases including cancer, aging-related diseases, and infectious diseases. A complete understanding of their function can only be accomplished using high-resolution structures. In spite of recent developments in structural biology, membrane proteins continue to pose tremendous challenges to most biophysical techniques. A major area of research in my group is focused on the development of NMR techniques to study the dynamic structures of membrane bound proteins such as cytochrome b5, cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450-reductase. In the first-half of my talk, I will present strategies to study the structure and dynamics of these challenging systems and also on the electron transfer mechanism that enables the enzymatic function of P450. The accumulation of misfolded proteins is a hallmark feature in numerous human disorders such as blood diseases like sickle cell anemia, neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, and metabolic diseases such as type II diabetes. Misfolded protein aggregates may deposit in tissues, can be intracellular, extracellular, or both. The conformational changes accompanying misfolding can result in disruption of the regular function of the protein or may result in a gain of function that is often associated with toxicity. Amyloid peptides represent a subset of misfolded proteins whose misfolded state shares unique characteristics. Our research group has been investigating the high-resolution structures of early amyloid intermediates, amyloid-membrane interaction and membrane disruption, and the interaction of polyphenols with amyloid proteins. In the second-half of my presentation, NMR structures of early intermediates of amyloid peptides, mechanisms of amyloid-induced membrane disruption, and amyloid inhibition by polyphenolic compounds will be discussed. Solid-state NMR results on the interaction of amyloid fibers with lipid bilayers, and novel NMR approaches to investigate amyloid formation will also be presented. 1. BBA Biomembranes 1768 (2007) 3235. 2. Acc. Chem. Res. 116 (2012) 3650. 3. Chem. Soc. Rev. 41 (2012) 608.

G-INCPM special guest seminar - More physiologically relevant cellular models compatible with High Content Analysis

Date:
14
Wednesday
January
2015
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:00-11:30
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Sebastien Degot
Organizer: Department of Biomolecular Sciences
Abstract: iPS-derived cells, primary cells and even immortal cell lines grown in standard ...iPS-derived cells, primary cells and even immortal cell lines grown in standard 2D culture conditions are valuable tools for basic research, drug discovery and drug safety. However, the selection and detection of active compounds based on such in vitro models has so far been of limited value. Two major limitations could explain this phenomenon. First, monolayer cells do not reflect properly native tissue morphology and second, available relevant readouts are limited. Consequently, there is increasing awareness that the development of cellular models with higher physiological relevance coupled to more informative readouts are prerequisite to improving cell-based assays. In this context, we have developed several models based on micropattern technology as well as dedicated image analysis that address individually or simultaneously the bottlenecks cited above. Examples of the different applications will be presented with a specific highlight on multi-cellular models where several key cellular features demonstrated higher maturation levels on micropattern compared to conventional 2D cultures. The apparent resuscitation and/or stabilization of cellular functions allowed implementation of innovative readouts that are more relevant to the physiology of the systems, using imaging and High Content Analysis. Furthermore, the micropatterned organ models consist of multiple homogeneous uniform structures per well, facilitating segmentation and identification of features such as width of myotubes for higher throughput automated image analysis. Alltogether, our work suggests that control of cell adhesion and cell-cell interactions promotes multi-cellular self-organization and enhances overall function, opening up access to novel cellular readouts. Micropatterns offer an opportunity to improve upon 2D cultures of several cellular models, even for cells that are the closest representatives of in vivo functionalities, further upgrading their usefulness for screening and mechanistic investigation of candidate drugs or signaling pathways.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
25
Thursday
December
2014
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Quantitative analysis of advanced MRI methods for classification and follow up of patients with brain lesions
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Dr. Dafna Ben Bashat
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics
Abstract: In recent years, technical and methodological advances concerning medical applic ...In recent years, technical and methodological advances concerning medical applications of magnetic resonance (MR) have allowed the acquisition of multiple types of data, beyond pure anatomy, in a single examination, including diffusion imaging, MR spectroscopy, perfusion, permeability imaging and functional MRI. Integrating the various MR methods along with multiparametric analysis, can improve patient evaluation, quantitative tissue classification and characterization, as well as therapy response assessment. Accurate measurements of brain structures and lesion volumes can be performed using manual or semi-manual methods. Analysis of multiparametric data, including advanced imaging methods, requires the use of advanced analysis tools. Multiparametric analysis of MRI data includes supervised and un-supervised methods, and provides information that often requires validation. In this talk, I will present state of the art methods used in MRI data acquisition and analysis for quantitative assessment and follow-up of brain lesions; give a brief description of the main methods used for advanced and multi-parametric image analysis; highlight controversial issues regarding the use and analysis of these methods and their potential use in clinical practice.

Superluminous Supernovae and LCOGT

Date:
17
Wednesday
December
2014
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:00
Location: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Physics Building
Lecturer: Andy Howell
Organizer: Nella and Leon Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics
Abstract: In the past few years new classes of supernovae have been discovered that are bo ...In the past few years new classes of supernovae have been discovered that are both brighter and fainter than previously thought possible. The superluminous supernovae have luminosities 100 times greater than a core-collapse supernova, and their origin is a mystery. I will present data on two of the most distant and best-observed events from the Supernova Legacy Survey, and the first radiative transfer model that gives insight into their origin. They seem to result from the creation and spin-down of a magnetar. I'll also discuss a range of both normal and exotic supernovae from the local universe, including an even newer class of superluminous supernovae, and show how new observations are revealing or limiting SN progenitors for the first time. The Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is one of the latest tools allowing new kinds of observations with its 11 node network of one and two meter robotic telescopes spanning the globe. We have now begun the LCOGTSupernova Key Project, which will collect the largest sample of low-redshift supernovae ever obtained: lightcurves and spectroscopy on 450 supernovae over 3 years for use in cosmology, understanding explosions, and determining supernova progenitors.

New Localization Paradigms for In-Vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Date:
04
Thursday
December
2014
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 11:15-12:30
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Assaf Tal
Organizer: Faculty of Physics
Details: 11:00 – coffee, tea, and more
Abstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to produce spatial distribution m ...Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to produce spatial distribution maps of water in our body. However, by shaping the magnetic fields inside the scanner, one is able to excite and image nuclear magnetic moments in other biochemically interesting molecules. The high degree of control afforded by modern hardware allows us to propose intricate and elegant ways of coherently controlling the nuclear moments, and two such schemes will be presented. The resulting paradigms enable one to monitor in-vivo biochemistry with greater speed and resolution than before, opening up new possibilities of studying brain physiology.

Magnetic Resonance Seminar

Date:
27
Thursday
November
2014
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 09:30
Title: Studying human glioblastoma metabolism in vivo using proton spectroscopy and hyperpolarized 13C MRS
Location: Gerhard M.J. Schmidt Lecture Hall
Lecturer: Mor Mishkovsky
Organizer: Department of Chemical and Biological Physics

Plasma-based light sources for lithography and nano-technology applications

Date:
16
Sunday
November
2014
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 10:15-12:00
Location: Edna and K.B. Weissman Building of Physical Sciences
Lecturer: Dr. Konstantin Tsigutkin
Organizer: Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics
Details: 10:00 - Coffee, tea and more
Abstract: For more than three decades, the number of transistors on a chip has grown expon ...For more than three decades, the number of transistors on a chip has grown exponentially, doubling on the average of every 18 months. With each new technology generation, the role of lithography has increased in importance not only because of the requirements for smaller feature sizes and tighter overlay, but also because of the increasing costs of lithography tools. Optical projection lithography and its extensions, e.g., water immersion, are expected to remain the lithographic technologies until at least 2020. Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) extends optical lithography to a higher resolution and provides a larger depth of focus because it utilizes a shorter imaging wavelength: 13.5 nm versus 193-248 nm. In this talk, brief history of the development of the 13.5 nm light sources is addressed along with the current state of the EUV technology. In addition to that, examples of the extreme ultraviolet radiation applications beyond the lithography and for advancing the nano-technology will be given.

Imaging through turbulence a long quest of innovative computational photography in astronomy

Date:
13
Thursday
November
2014
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 12:00
Location: Jacob Ziskind Building
Lecturer: Barak Zackay
Organizer: Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science

Fluidigm Technologies For Single-Cell Genomics and Proteomics

Date:
12
Wednesday
November
2014
Lecture / Seminar
Time: 14:00-15:00
Location: Ullmann Building of Life Sciences
Lecturer: Amy Hamilton
Organizer: Department of Life Sciences Core Facilities
Abstract: Introducing new applications and workflow enhancements for the C1 Single-Cell Au ...Introducing new applications and workflow enhancements for the C1 Single-Cell Auto Prep System. Methods for optimum cell preparation and cell qualification for the C1™ Single-Cell Auto Prep System. Understanding biological heterogeneity with CyTOF-2 Mass Cytometer.